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Minerals: Major and Trace. Major Minerals. sodium chloride potassium calcium phosphorus magnesium sulfur. Minerals in a 60-kilogram (132-pound) Human Body. MAJOR MINERALS The major minerals are those present in amounts larger than 5 g (a teaspoon). A pound is about

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Minerals: Major and Trace


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    1. Minerals:Major and Trace

    2. Major Minerals • sodium • chloride • potassium • calcium • phosphorus • magnesium • sulfur

    3. Minerals in a 60-kilogram (132-pound) Human Body MAJOR MINERALS The major minerals are those present in amounts larger than 5 g (a teaspoon). A pound is about 454 g; thus only calcium and phosphorus appear in amounts larger than a pound. TRACE MINERALS There are more than a dozen trace minerals, although only six are shown here. Amount (g)

    4. Sodium • fluid volume regulator, electrolyte balancer • source • mostly in processed foods • deficiency • must be replaced with water if blood sodium drops • toxicity • edema and hypertension • diet moderate in sodium is recommended

    5. Chloride • essential nutrient • fluid and electrolyte balance • abundant in foods (especially processed) • part of sodium chloride • rarely lacking • dehydration due to water deficiency

    6. Potassium • maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance • affects homeostasis, such as a steady heartbeat • found in both plant and animal cells • less found in processed foods • deficiency • hypertension • most common electrolyte imbalance • muscle weakness • toxicity • rare from food • over consumption of supplements

    7. What Processing Does to Sodium and Potassium Contents of Foods Key: Potassium Sodium Milks Meats Vegetables Fruits Grains Unprocessed Milk (whole) Roast beef Fresh corn Fresh peaches Rolled oats Processed Instant pudding Canned, cream corn Chipped beef Peach pie Oat cereal

    8. Calcium • most abundant mineral in body • bone structure, calcium bank • found primarily in milk and milk products • deficiency • limits mass & density • growing years • age related • silent, no signals

    9. Key: Breads and cereals Vegetables Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Milligrams Food Serving size (kcalories) CALCIUM As in the riboflavin figure, milk and milk products (white) dominate the calcium figure. Most people need at least three selections from the milk group to meet recommendations. a Values based on products containing added calcium salts; the calcium in 1⁄2 c soybeans is about 1⁄3 as much as in 1⁄2 c tofu. b If bones are discarded, calcium declines dramatically. Label AI for women 19–50 AI for women 51+ AI for men 51+ AI for men 19–50 Calcium in Selected Foods

    10. Phosphorus • 2nd most abundant • energy metabolism, transport lipids, cell membranes • foods rich in protein, supply phosphorus

    11. Key: Breads and cereals Vegetables Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Milligrams Food Serving size (kcalories) RDA for adults PHOSPHORUS Protein-rich sources, such as milk (white), meats (red), and legumes (brown), provide abundant phosphorus as well. Phosphorus in Selected Foods

    12. Magnesium • minute amount, but critical • energy metabolism, catalyst, ATP production • critical to heart function • ingestion of hard water may reduce incidence of heart disease • toxicity is rare, but can be fatal

    13. Key: Breads and cereals Vegetables Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Milligrams Food Serving size (kcalories) RDA for men 19-30 MAGNESIUM Legumes (brown) are a rich source of magnesium. RDA for women 19-31 Magnesium in Selected Foods

    14. Sulfur • sulfur is not used by the body • found in thiamin and several amino acids • high sulfur content in • skin, hair, nails

    15. Trace Minerals • iron • zinc • iodine • selenium • copper • manganese • fluoride • chromium • molybdenum

    16. Trace Minerals • small amounts found in the body • small amounts needed • deficiency can be fatal, excess can be deadly • TM are active in all body systems • content is dependent on soil and water composition and processing

    17. Iron • essential nutrient • mostly found in • hemoglobin • carrier of oxygen • myoglobin • protein in muscles, making oxygen available • iron balance is critical • deficiency • fatigue and anemia

    18. Iron • red meats, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes are good sources

    19. Key: Breads and cereals Vegetables Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie RDA for women 19–50 RDA for women 51+ IRON Meats (red), legumes (brown), and some vegetables (green) make the greatest contributions of iron to the diet. RDA for men Iron in Selected Foods

    20. Zinc • cofactor for many enzymes affecting growth and digestion • deficiency • growth retardation • sexual immaturity • impaired immune response • protein containing foods are a good source of zinc

    21. Key: Breads and cereals Vegetables Fruits Milk and milk products Legumes, nuts, seeds Meats Best sources per kcalorie Micrograms RAE Food Serving size (kcalories) RDA for men RDA for women ZINC Meat, fish, and poultry (red) are concentrated sources of zinc. Milk (white) and legumes (brown) contain some zinc. Label Zinc in Selected Foods

    22. Iodine • converted to iodide in GI tract • essential component of thyroid hormone • regulates temperature, reproduction, growth, cell production • deficiency • goiter: enlarged thyroid gland • cretinism • during pregnancy • irreversible mental and physical retardation

    23. Iodine • world’s ocean and iodized salt are best sources

    24. Selenium • essential antioxidant nutrient • deficiency associated with heart disease • seafood, meats, whole grains, vegetables • dependent on soil content • toxicity • loss and brittleness of hair and nails

    25. Copper • important player in several enzyme reactions • deficiency is rare • food sources are legumes, whole grains, nuts, shellfish, seeds

    26. Manganese • cofactor for many enzymes that metabolize carbs, lipids and amino acids • deficiency is rare • too much can affect the nervous system • found in nuts, whole grains, leafy veggies

    27. Fluoride • presence makes • bones stronger • teeth more resistant to tooth decay • fluoridated water is best source • most bottled water is lacking • too much can damage teeth U.S. Population with Access to Fluoridated Water through Public Water Systems Key: < 49% 50% – 74% > 75%

    28. Chromium • essential nutrient involved in carb and lipid metabolism • maintains glucose homeostasis • deficiency • creates diabetic like symptoms • sources include liver, whole grains, yeast

    29. Molybdenum • cofactor for many enzymes • found in legumes, cereals, organ meat

    30. Contaminant Minerals • heavy metals • lead • mercury • cadmium • enter food through water, soil, air pollution • interfere with nutrients • bioaccumulation

    31. Remember to eat foods, not nutrients