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Organization Development and Change. Chapter Eighteen: Developing and Assisting Members. Thomas G. Cummings Christopher G. Worley. Learning Objectives for Chapter Eighteen.

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Organization development and change

Organization Development and Change

Chapter Eighteen:

Developing and

Assisting Members

Thomas G. Cummings

Christopher G. Worley

Learning objectives for chapter eighteen
Learning Objectivesfor Chapter Eighteen

  • To examine three human resource management interventions: career planning and development, workforce diversity, and employee wellness

  • To understand how OD efforts enhance human resource approaches to these issues

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Career stages
Career Stages

  • Establishment Stage (ages 21-26)

  • Advancement Stage (ages 26-40)

  • Maintenance Stage (ages 40-60)

  • Withdrawal Stage (age 60 and above)

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Career stages and planning issues
Career Stages and Planning Issues

Establishment What are alternative occupations, firms, and jobs?

What are my interests and capabilities?

How do I get the work accomplished?

Am I performing as expected?

Advancement Am I advancing as expected?

What long-term options are available?

How do I become more effective and efficient?

Maintenance How do I help others?

Should I reassess and redirect my career?

Withdrawal What are my interests outside of work?

Will I be financially secure?

What retirement options are available to me?

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Career planning resources
Career Planning Resources

  • Communication regarding career opportunities and resources within the organization

  • Workshops to assess member interests, abilities, and job situations and to formulate career plans

  • Career counseling by managers or human resource department personnel

  • Self-development materials directed toward identifying life and career issues

  • Assessment programs that test vocational interests, aptitudes, and abilities relevant to career goals

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Career and human resource planning
Career and Human Resource Planning

Individual Career Planning

Human Resources Planning

Personal objectives

and life plans

Business objectives

and plans

Ways to attract and

orient new talent

Occupational and

organizational choice

Methods for matching

individuals and jobs

Job assignment choice

Ways to help people

perform and develop


planning and review

Ways to prepare

for satisfying retirement


Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Career development interventions

Role & Structure Interventions

Realistic job preview

Job rotation and challenging assignments

Consultative roles

Phased retirement

Individual Employee Development

Assessment centers


Developmental training

Performance Feedback and Coaching

Work Life Balance

Career Development Interventions

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Organization development and change

A Framework for Managing Diversity

External Pressures For & Against Diversity


Perspectives &





Internal Pressures For & Against Diversity

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Age diversity
Age Diversity

  • Trends

    • Median age up

    • Distribution of ages changing

  • Implications

    • Health care

    • Mobility

    • Security

  • Interventions

    • Wellness programs

    • Job design

    • Career development and planning

    • Reward systems

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Gender diversity
Gender Diversity

  • Trends

    • Percentage of women in work force increasing

    • Dual-income families increasing

  • Implications

    • Child care

    • Maternity/paternity leaves

    • Single parents

  • Interventions

    • Job design

    • Fringe benefit rewards

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Disability diversity
Disability Diversity

  • Trends

    • The number of people with disabilities entering the work force is increasing

  • Implications

    • Job skills and challenge issues

    • Physical space design

    • Respect and dignity

  • Interventions

    • Performance management

    • Job design

    • Career planning and development

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Culture and values diversity
Culture and Values Diversity

  • Trends

    • Rising proportion of immigrant and minority-group workers

    • Shift in rewards

  • Implications

    • Flexible organizational policies

    • Autonomy

    • Affirmation and respect

  • Interventions

    • Career planning and development

    • Employee involvement

    • Reward systems

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Race ethnicity diversity
Race/Ethnicity Diversity

  • Trends

    • Minorities represent large segments of workforce and a small segment of top management/senior executives

    • Qualifications and experience of minority employees is often overlooked

  • Implications

    • Discrimination

  • Interventions

    • Equal employment opportunities

    • Mentoring programs

    • Education and training

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Sexual orientation diversity
Sexual Orientation Diversity

  • Trends

    • Number of single-sex households up

    • More liberal attitudes toward sexual orientation

  • Implications

    • Discrimination

  • Interventions

    • Equal employment opportunities

    • Fringe benefits

    • Education and training

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Organization development and change

A Model of Stress and Work

  • Consequences

  • Subjective: anxiety, apathy

  • Behavioral: drug and alcohol abuse

  • Cognitive: poor focus, burnout

  • Physiological: high blood

  • pressure and pulse

  • Organizational: low productivity, absenteeism, legal action

  • Occupational Stressors

  • Physical Environment

  • Individual: role conflict and ambiguity, lack of control

  • Group: poor peer, subordinate or boss, relationships

  • Organizational: poor design, HR policies, politics

  • Stress

  • How the

  • individual

  • perceives the

  • occupational

  • stressors

Individual Differences


Type A or B, hardiness, social support, negative affectivity


Age, gender, occupation, race

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

Stress and wellness workplace interventions
Stress and Wellness Workplace Interventions

  • Role Clarification

    • A systematic process for determining expectations and understanding work roles

  • Supportive relationships

    • Establish trust and positive relationships

  • Stress inoculation training

    • Programs to help employees acquire skills and knowledge to cope positively with stressors

  • Health facilities

  • Employee Assistance Programs

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western