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Organization Development and Change. Chapter Seven: Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic Information. Thomas G. Cummings Christopher G. Worley. Learning Objectives for Chapter Seven. To understand the importance of diagnostic relationships in the OD process

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organization development and change

Organization Development and Change

Chapter Seven:

Collecting and Analyzing

Diagnostic Information

Thomas G. Cummings

Christopher G. Worley

learning objectives for chapter seven
Learning Objectivesfor Chapter Seven
  • To understand the importance of diagnostic relationships in the OD process
  • To describe the methods for diagnosing and collecting data
  • To understand and utilize techniques for analyzing data

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

the diagnostic relationship
The Diagnostic Relationship
  • Who is the OD Practitioner?
  • Why is the practitioner here?
  • Who does the practitioner work for?
  • What does the practitioner want and why?
  • How will my confidentiality be protected?
  • Who will have access to the data?
  • What’s in it for me?
  • Can the practitioner be trusted?

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western


Data Collection - Feedback Cycle

Core Activities

Planning to

Collect Data






Back Data



Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

  • Population vs. Sample
  • Importance of Sample Size
  • Process of Sampling
  • Types of Samples
    • Random
    • Convenience

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

  • Major Advantages
    • Responses can be quantified and summarized
    • Large samples and large quantities of data
    • Relatively inexpensive
  • Major Potential Problems
    • Little opportunity for empathy with subjects
    • Predetermined questions -- no change to change
    • Overinterpretation of data possible
    • Response biases possible

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

  • Major Advantages
    • Adaptive -- allows customization
    • Source of “rich” data
    • Empathic
    • Process builds rapport with subjects
  • Major Potential Problems
    • Relatively expensive
    • Bias in interviewer responses
    • Coding and interpretation can be difficult
    • Self-report bias possible

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

  • Major Advantages
    • Collects data on actual behavior, rather than reports of behavior
    • Real time, not retrospective
    • Adaptive
  • Major Potential Problems
    • Coding and interpretation difficulties
    • Sampling inconsistencies
    • Observer bias and questionable reliability
    • Can be expensive

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

unobtrusive measures
Unobtrusive Measures
  • Major Advantages
    • Non-reactive, no response bias
    • High face validity
    • Easily quantified
  • Major Potential Problems
    • Access and retrieval difficulties
    • Validity concerns
    • Coding and interpretation difficulties

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

analysis techniques
Analysis Techniques
  • Qualitative Tools
    • Content Analysis
    • Force-field Analysis
  • Quantitative Tools
    • Descriptive Statistics
    • Measures of Association (e.g., correlation)
    • Difference Tests

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western


Force-Field Analysis of Work Group Performance

Forces for Change

Forces for Status Quo

Group performance norms

New technology

Better raw materials

Fear of change

Desired Performance

Current Performance

Member complacency

Competition from other groups

Well-learned skills

Supervisor pressures

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western