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Organization Development and Change

Organization Development and Change

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Organization Development and Change

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  1. Organization Development and Change Chapter Eleven: Evaluating and Institutionalizing OD Interventions Thomas G. Cummings Christopher G. Worley

  2. Learning Objectivesfor Chapter Eleven • To understand the issues associated with evaluating OD interventions • To understand the process of institutionalizing OD interventions and the factors that contribute to it Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  3. Issues in Evaluating OD Interventions • Implementation and Evaluation Feedback • Measurement • Select the right variables to measure • Design good measurements • Operational • Reliable • Valid • Research Design Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  4. Implementation and Evaluation Feedback Diagnosis Implementation Feedback Evaluation Feedback Implementation of Intervention Design and Implementation of Interventions Measure of Long-term Effects Measures of the Intervention and Immediate Effects Clarify Intention Plan for Next Steps Alternative Interventions Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  5. Implementation Feedback Feedback aimed at guiding implementation efforts Milestones, intermediate targets Measures of the intervention’s progress Evaluation Feedback Feedback aimed at determining impact of intervention Goals, outcomes, performance Measures of the intervention’s effect Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  6. Sources of Reliability • Rigorous Operational Definition • How high does a team have to score on a five-point scale to say that it is effective? • Multiple Measures • Multiple items on a survey • Multiple measures of the same variable (survey, observation, unobtrusive measure) • Standardized Instruments Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  7. Types of Validity • Face Validity: Does the measure “appear” to reflect the variable of interest? • Content Validity: Do “experts” agree that the measure appears valid? • Criterion or Convergent Validity: Do measures of “similar” variables correlate? • Discriminant Validity: Do measures of “non-similar” variables show no association? Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  8. Elements of Strong Research Designs in OD Evaluation • Longitudinal Measurement • Change is measured over time • Comparison Units • Appropriate use of “control” groups • Statistical Analysis • Alternative sources of variation have been controlled Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  9. Evaluating Different Types of Change • Alpha Change • Movement along a stable dimension • Beta Change • Recalibration of units of measure in a stable dimension • Gamma Change • Fundamental redefinition of dimension Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  10. Institutionalization Framework Organization Characteristics Institutionalization Processes Indicators of Institutionalization Intervention Characteristics Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  11. Organization Characteristics • Congruence • Extent to which an intervention supports or aligns with the current environment, strategic orientation, or other changes taking place • Stability of Environment and Technology • Unionization Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  12. Intervention Characteristics • Goal Specificity • Programmability • Level of Change Target • Internal Support • Sponsor Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  13. Institutionalization Processes • Socialization • Commitment • Reward Allocation • Diffusion • Sensing and Calibration Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing

  14. Indicators of Institutionalization • Knowledge • Performance • Preferences • Normative Consensus Cummings & Worley, 7e (c) 2001 South-Western College Publishing