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Chapter. 18. Creating and Managing Change. Becoming World Class. Becoming world class is a goal that is essential to survival and success today It requires: applying the best and latest knowledge and ideas having the ability to operate at the highest standards

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Creating and

Managing Change

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Becoming World Class

  • Becoming world class is a goal that is essential to survival and success today

    • It requires:

      • applying the best and latest knowledge and ideas

      • having the ability to operate at the highest standards

      • becoming one of the very best in the world at what you do

  • World-class companies create high-value products and earn superior profits over the long run

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Becoming World Class

  • Sustainable, great futures

    • essential characteristics of enduringly great companies

      • strong core values

      • driven by stretch goals

      • change continuously

        • drive for progress via adaptability, experimentation, trial and error, opportunistic thinking, and fast action

      • focus primarily on beating themselves

    • in sum, great companies have core values, know what they are and what they mean, and live by them

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Becoming World Class (cont.)

  • The tyranny of the ‘or”

    • the belief that things must be either A or B, and cannot be both

    • belief that only one goal but not another can be attained

    • often is invalid

      • always is constraining

  • The genius of the “and”

    • ability to pursue multiple goals at once

      • deliver multiple competitive values to customers

      • perform all management functions

      • reconcile hard-nosed business logic with ethics

      • lead and empower

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Managing Change

  • Organizational change is managed effectively when:

    • the organization is moved from its current state to a planned future state

    • the change works as planned

    • the transition is accomplished without excessive costs to the organization or to individual organizational members

  • People are the key to successful change

    • people must take an interest and active role in helping the organization as a whole

    • permanent rekindling of individual creativity and responsibility should be a consequence of change

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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Motivating people to change

    • people must be motivated to change

      • people often resist change

    • general reasons for resistance - arise regardless of the content of the change

      • inertia - people don’t want to disturb the status quo

      • timing - managers should introduce change when people are receptive

      • surprise - resistance is likely when change is sudden, unexpected, or extreme

      • peer pressure - work teams may band together in opposition to change

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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Motivating people to change (cont.)

    • change-specific reasons for resistance - arise from the specific nature of a proposed change

      • self-interest - fear that something of value will be lost

      • misunderstanding - people may resist because they don’t fully understand the purpose of the change

      • different assessments - employees receive different - and usually less - information than management receives

        • such discrepancies in knowledge cause people to develop different assessments of proposed changes

      • management tactics - many fail to commit employees to change

        • force the change on employees

        • do not provide the necessary resources, knowledge, or leadership

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Reasons For Resistance To Change

General Reasons For Resistance

Resistance to Change

Change-specific Reasons for Resistance

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(reinforcing and

supporting the

new ways)



the changes)

Implementing Change


(breaking from

the old ways of

doing things)

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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Motivating people to change (cont.)

    • general model for managing resistance - three basic stages

      • unfreezing - realizing that current practices are inappropriate and the new behavior must be enacted

        • performance gap - important contributor to unfreezing

          • the difference between actual performance and the performance that should or could exist

          • can apply to the organization as a whole or to departments, groups, or individuals

      • moving - instituting the change

        • begins with a vision of where the company is heading

      • refreezing - strengthening new behaviors that support change

        • implementing controls and rewards that support the change

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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Motivating people to change (cont.)

    • specific approaches to enlist cooperation

      • education and communication - communicate not only thenature of the change but itslogic

      • participation and involvement - listen to the people who are affected by the change

        • should be involved in the change’s design and implementation

      • facilitation and support - make the change as easy as possible

        • provide resources and training needed to carry out the change

        • listen patiently to problems

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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Motivating people to change (cont.)

    • specific approaches to enlist cooperation (cont.)

      • negotiation and rewards - change may be resisted until management agrees to one or more concessions

        • rewards should be restructured to reinforce the change

        • change is facilitated by demonstrating its benefits

      • manipulation and cooptation - resisting individual is given a desirable role in the change process

      • coercion - apply punishment or the threat of punishment to those who resist change

    • each approach has advantages and disadvantages

    • change leaders need to build in stability throughout the process

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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Harmonizing multiple changes

    • total organization change - introducing and sustaining multiple policies, practices, and procedures across multiple units and levels

      • such change affects the thinking and behavior of everyone

    • change efforts usually are simultaneous but not coordinated

      • companies introduce new changes constantly

        • many are perceived to be fads

        • change efforts helped by avoiding fads

      • management needs to “connect the dots”

        • integrate the various efforts into a coherent picture that people can see, understand, and get behind

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Leading Change

1. Establishing a sense of urgency

2. Creating the guiding coalition

3. Developing a vision and strategy

4. Communicating the change vision

5. Empowering broad-based action

6. Generating short-term wins

7. Consolidating gains and producing more change

8. Anchoring new approaches in the culture

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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Leading change

    • establish a sense of urgency - examine current realities and pressures in the marketplace

      • identify both crises and opportunities

        • be frank and honest about them

      • urgency is driven by compelling business reasons for change

        • change is a business necessity

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The absence of a major

and visible crisis

Too much happy talk

from senior management

Too many visible resources

Human nature, with its

capacity for denial,

especially if people are

already busy or stressed

Low overall performance


Organizational structures

that focus employees on

narrow functional goals

A kill-the-messenger-of-

bad-news, low candor,

low-confrontation culture

A lack of sufficient

performance feedback from

external sources

Internal measurement systems

that focus on the wrong

performance indexes

Sources Of Complacency


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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Leading change (cont.)

    • create a guiding coalition - put together a group with enough power to lead the change

      • over time, support must expand outward and downward

    • developing a vision and strategy - determine the idealized, expected state of affairs after the change is implemented

      • image will be a target that can clarify expectations, dispel rumors, and mobilize people’s energies

      • communicate how the transition will occur

      • communicate how people will be affected by the change

    • communicating the change vision - use every possible channel and opportunity to reinforce the vision

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Managing Change (cont.)

  • Leading change (cont.)

    • empowering broad-based action - get rid of obstacles to success

      • encourage risk taking

      • empower people by providing information, knowledge, authority, and rewards

    • generate short-term wins - plan for and create small victories to demonstrate progress

    • consolidate gains and produce more change - keep changing things in ways that support the vision

    • anchor new approaches in the culture - highlight positive results and develop new change agents

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Shaping The Future

  • Reactive change

    • response that occurs when events in the environment have already affected the firm’s performance

      • problem-driven change

  • Proactive change

    • response that is initiated before a performance gap occurs

      • creating the future you want

  • Exercising foresight

    • impossible to know the future with certainty

    • create core competencies that will allow the firm to respond to changing customer demands and improve continuously

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Shaping The Future (cont.)

  • Learning continuously

    • a vital route to renewable competitive advantage that requires:

      • a clear, strategic goal to learn new capabilities

      • a commitment to constant experimentation

    • relentless drive to be better in every way

    • everyone engages in exploration, discovery, and action

    • process generates learning on a more individual level

      • leads to personal growth and development

    • try new things in the spirit of continuous improvement

      • invest in research and long-term development projects

      • encourage risks and tolerate failures

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Learning Cycle: Explore, Discover, Act


Explore current reality.

The aim is to be open and honest about

what is happening at present


As reality becomes clearer,

issues and choices become clearer.

People see with new eyes.


Test solutions, implement a plan,

evaluate results, celebrate success,

recognize problems.

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Instead of . . .

Why not . . .?

Learning Cycle: Explore, Discover, Act (cont.)

  • Creating advantage

    • ultimate form of proactive change is to create new markets and transform industries

    • create new competitive arenas, transform your industry, and imagine a future that others don’t see

  • change the environment to fit

  • the firm

  • create new advantages

  • create new markets

  • invest in evolving/emerging

  • opportunities

  • fitting the firm to the environment

  • preserving old advantages

  • locking in old markets

  • investing in fixed assets

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Learning Cycle: Explore, Discover, Act (cont.)

  • Creating the future

    • there are two different strategic postures to prepare to compete in an uncertain future

    • adapters - take the current industry structure, and its future evolution, as givens

      • choose where and how to compete

      • posture taken by most companies within given environments

    • shapers - try to change the structure of their industries

      • create a future competitive landscape of their own design

      • requires high-stake bets

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Customer types

Vast Opportunity



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Adding Value, Personally

  • Go beyond your job description:

    • volunteer for projects;

    • identify problems;

    • initiate solutions.

  • Seek out others and share ideas and advice.

  • Offer your opinions and respect those of others.

  • Take an inventory of your skills every few months.

  • Learn something new every week.

  • Discover new ways to make a contribution.

  • Engage in active thought and deliberate action.

  • Take risks based on what you know and believe.

  • Recognize, research, and pursue opportunity.

  • Differentiate yourself.

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    Learning Cycle: Explore, Discover, Act (cont.)

    • Shaping your own future

      • into the future

        • commit to lifelong learning

        • requires occasionally taking risks

          • moving outside of your “comfort zone”

        • requires being open to new ideas

      • success in the future will come from:

        • shaping the future andadapting to the world

        • being clear about what you want to change and being responsive to others’ perspectives

        • pursuing your vision and understanding current realities

        • leading and learning

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    Top-down programs

    Leader as hero



    They are the problem




    Bottom-up approach

    Leader as facilitator



    We need to change




    Forthright and listening


    Seeing clearly

    Working with the grain

    All change

    Learning while doing



    Leaning Into The Future