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The Americas

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  1. The Americas Ch 17

  2. I. Introduction • American colonialism and slavery was a result of mercantilism • Colonies were to bring gold and resources to homeland • Gold was the measure of a countries wealth • Monopolistic trade • Slaves- “cost-effective labor” • Mercantilism brought heavy regulation • Result of scarce resources

  3. Also see p. 559

  4. I. Spanish-American Colonialism • Began with Queen Isabella of Castile and Columbus • Claimed new world for Spain • Castile controlled colonies • Regions ruled by viceroys • Regulated by Casa de Contratacion (House of Trade) • Located in Seville • Limited number of ports in New World and Spain • Regulated ships going to New World • Main exports were Gold, Silver and Sugar

  5. I. Spanish-American Colonialism • Conflict with Portugal • Main claims were in Brazil • Treaty of Tordesillas 1494- Dividing line that gave Portugal Brazil and claims to India • Spain had everything west of this line • Predominantly focused on the coast • Sugar Plantations were the initial economic boom

  6. I. Spanish-American Colonialism • Conflict with Portugal continued • Rio de Janiero became important due to being a port close to the mines • Indian labor was greatly used in the mines • Mercury was also important to this region

  7. I. Spanish-American Colonialism • Management declined during war of Spanish succession (1701-1714) • Resulted in Reforms • Phillip V (r. 1700-1746) • Tried to regain control • End/reduce piracy • Encouraged by English • Established viceroy of Granada (p.559)

  8. I. Spanish-American Colonialism • Reformers continued… • Ferdinand VI (r. 1746-1759) • Tried to exert power • Lost numerous naval battles • Allied with France for protection • Charles III (r. 1759-1788) • Abolished Seville monopolies • Opened more ports • Viceroy of Rio de la Plata • Improved bureaucracy • Efficient taxing

  9. I. Spanish-American Colonialism • People of the colonies • Indians • Slaughtered • Abused on plantations& in mines • Killed by disease

  10. I. Spanish-American Colonialism • People continued • Peninsulares- People born in Spain who came to the New World • Superior • Creoles- Spaniards born in the New World • Racial purity questioned (Mestizos) • Not considered to be equal with Peninsulares • A type of Caste system formed • African Slaves (discussed in notes later)

  11. I. Spanish-American Colonialism • Conflict with the English colonies • English colonization • 1st colony- Roanoke Colony 1586 • Failed • Focused on central east coast of the current US. • Economy became heavily focused on slave labor

  12. II. African Slavery • Slavery was a common practice throughout ancient times into the modern era. • Slaves consisted of people from conquered territories or POWs • Slavery was also result of debt • Slavery in Africa • Between rival tribes • Arabs enslaved conquered Africans • European enslavement result of mercantilism

  13. II. African Slavery • Slave populations were not self-sustaining • 1400s-1800s • 12 million slaves crossed Atlantic • Close to 2 million died in transit • Low reproductive rates • Higher in southern US • Plantations create demand (Atlantic) • Male labor

  14. II. African Slavery • Organization • Dutch and British take over trade from Portuguese • British Royal African Company (1660’s) • Supplied Barbados, Jamaica and Virginia • Spanish • Indies Piece- Healthy African Male • Women and children fraction of this • Mulattos or Africans purchased and sold slaves • Profitable but sometimes only 5-10%

  15. II. African Slavery • Referred to as Triangle trade • 1st side- Europe to Africa • Guns, ammunition and other European goods • 2nd side- Africa to New World • Slaves brought over the Middle Passage • 3rd side- New World to Europe • Tobacco, sugar and rum

  16. III. Wars and Revolution • The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) • Known as the French and Indian War in America • Started by Frederick II of Prussia • Invades Saxony • France and Austria join Saxony • Joined by Sweden, Russia, and Spain • Britain sends aid to Prussia • Later joined by Portugal • Fought in both Europe and the Americas

  17. III. Wars and Revolution • 7 Year’s War continued • Britain wanted control of North America • East of Mississippi River • William Pitt the Elder • Used Prussian conflict to divide French forces • Gained large amounts of territory • Treaty of Paris 1763 ended French/Britain hostility • Tsar Peter III (1762) takes over after Elizabeth of Russia • Makes peace with Russia • Treaty of Hubertusburg of 1763 ended European conflict • No real changes in territory

  18. III. Wars and Revolution • American Revolution • Britain needed funding after 7 Years’ War • British taxes increased • Taxed colonies • Sugar Act 1764 (Repealed) • Lowered taxes but tried smugglers without juries • Stamp Act 1765 (Repealed) • Printed materials required a stamp • Argued they had no representative in Parliament • Declaratory Act of 1766 • Parliament can make laws to “bind” colonies

  19. III. Wars and Revolution • American Revolution continued • Cycle of Parliamentary taxes and Colonial resistance • Numerous taxes repealed • Charles Townshend-Chancellor of the Exchequer • Pushed numerous tax revenues • Sent customs agents and troops to protect them • March 5, 1770 Boston Massacre • Tea Act 1773 • Favored British East India Company • Tea was taxed but had to by the higher priced British tea • Boston Tea Party Dec 6, 1773 • Resulted in Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts 1774)

  20. III. Wars and Revolution • 1st Continental Congress 1774 • Self-government • 2nd Continental Congress 1775 • After numerous losses • Tried to resolve conflict but started to push for independence • August 1775- George III declares the colonies are rebelling • April 1776- Ports open for trade • July 4, 1776- Declaration of Independence adopted • War ends with Cornwallis being defeated at Yorktown October 19, 1781

  21. III. Wars and Revolution • Afterwards • The colonies modeled their government after the British government (minus monarch) • Created Article of Confederation • Was weak and scrapped • ConstitutionMay-June 1787

  22. IV. Conclusion • American Revolution’s impact • Showed that a colony can break from its motherland • Furthered decline of French Economy • Paved the way for the French Revolution