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SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS. Safety is the state in which the risk of harm to persons or property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management. NEED FOR SAFETY MANAGEMENT.

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Safety is the state in which the risk of harm to persons or property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management.


Although major air disasters are rare events, less catastrophic accidents and a whole range of incidents occur more frequently. These lesser safety events may be harbingers of underlying safety problems. They provide evidence of conditions ripe for failure. Ignoring the underlying safety hazards that facilitate such events can pave the way for an increase in the number of more serious accidents.

Accidents (and incidents) cost money. Although purchasing “insurance” can spread the costs of an accident, accidents make bad business sense. Insurance may cover specified risks (direct costs), but there are many uninsured costs. For an airline, these uninsured costs may vastly exceed the insured costs, including the downtime (i.e. loss of revenue), system re-scheduling costs and less tangible costs such as the loss of confidence of the travelling public. An understanding of these uninsured (or indirect) costs is fundamental to understanding the economics of safety.


Safety has always been an important consideration in all aviation activities. This is reflected in the aims and objectives of ICAO as stated in Article 44 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Doc 7300), commonly known as the Chicago Convention, which charges ICAO with ensuring the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world.

ICAO differentiates between safety programmes and safety management systems. Specifically:

  • A safety programme is an integrated set of regulations and activities aimed at improving safety.

  • A safety management system is an organized approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures.

    ICAO’s Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) require that States establish a safety programme to achieve an acceptable level of safety in aviation


The responsibility for safety and for effective and efficient safety management is a shared responsibility involving a wide spectrum of organizations and institutions including international organizations

  • ICAO

  • States

  • Civil Aviation Administrations (CAAs)

  • Manufacturers

  • Aircraft Operators

  • Service Providers

  • Third Party Contractors

  • Business and Professional Associations

Ats safety management

  • States shall ensure that the level of air traffic services (ATS) and communications, navigation and surveillance, as well as the ATS procedures applicable to the airspace or aerodrome concerned, are appropriate and adequate for maintaining an acceptable level of safety in the provision of ATS.

  • The requirements in respect of services, systems and procedures applicable to airspaces and aerodromes should be established on the basis of a regional air navigation agreement in order to facilitate the harmonization of ATS in adjacent airspaces.

  • To ensure that safety in the provision of ATS is maintained, the appropriate ATS authority shall implement safety management systems (SMS) for the air traffic services under its jurisdiction. Where appropriate, ATS SMS should be established on the basis of a regional air navigation agreement.

ICAO Requirements

Ats safety management1


The objectives of ATS safety management are to ensure that:

  • the established level of safety applicable to the provision of ATS within an airspace or at an aerodrome is met; and

  • safety-related enhancements are implemented whenever necessary.


An ATS SMS should include, inter alia, the following with respect to the provision of air traffic services:

a) monitoring of overall safety levels and detection of any adverse trend;

b) safety reviews of ATS units;

c) safety assessments in respect of the planned implementation of airspace reorganizations, the introduction of new

equipment systems or facilities, and new or changed ATS procedures; and

d) a mechanism for identifying the need for safety enhancing measures.

All activities undertaken in an ATS SMS shall be fully documented. All documentation shall be retained for

such period of time as is specified by the appropriate authority.


  • Data for use in safety monitoring programmes should be collected from as wide a range of sources as possible, as the safety-related consequences of particular procedures or systems may not be realized until after an incident has occurred.

  • The appropriate ATS authority should establish a formal incident reporting system for ATS personnel to facilitate the collection of information on actual or potential safety hazards or deficiencies related to the provision of ATS, including route structures, procedures, communications, navigation and surveillance systems and other safety significant systems and equipment as well as controller workloads.


  • Safety-related reports concerning the operation of air traffic services, including air traffic incident reports, shall be systematically reviewed by the appropriate ATS authority in order to detect any adverse trend in the number and types of incidents which occur.

  • Reports concerning the serviceability of ATS facilities and systems, such as failures and degradations of communications, surveillance and other safety significant systems and equipment, shall be systematically reviewed by the appropriate ATS authority in order to detect any trend in the operation of such systems which may have an adverse effect on safety.


Safety reviews of ATS units shall be conducted on a regular and systematic basis by personnel qualified through training, experience and expertise and having a full understanding of relevant Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS), safe operating practices and Human Factors principles.


A safety assessment shall be carried out in respect of proposals for significant airspace reorganizations, for significant changes in the provision of ATS procedures applicable to an airspace or an aerodrome, and for the introduction of new equipment, systems or facilities


  • Any actual or potential hazard related to the provision of ATS within an airspace or at an aerodrome, whether identified through an ATS safety management activity or by any other means, shall be assessed and classified by the appropriate ATS authority for its risk acceptability.

  • Except when the risk can be classified as acceptable, the ATS authority concerned shall, as a matter of priority and as far as practicable, implement appropriate measures to eliminate the risk or reduce the risk to a level that is acceptable.

National application georgia

The main sphere of activity of “Sakaeronavigatsia” is the provision of air navigation services (ANS) aimed at achieving safety, efficiency and regularity of flights in the civil airspace, where ANS are to be provided.

“Sakaeronavigatsia” defines safety in ANS as its top priority performing its main activities.

The Safety Management System (SMS) is an integral part of the overall management system of Sakaeronavigatsia, comprising all activities relating to the provision of air navigation services within the competence of Sakaeronavigatsia. The Safety Management System is aimed at ensuring a comprehensive, consistent, pro-active approach to the achievement, provision and maintenance of a high level of safety. The Safety Management System is documented in the following documents:

  • the present ANS Safety Policy of Sakaeronavigatsia;

  • the Safety Manual, containing detailed descriptions of the procedures and methods employed in the framework of the Safety Management System;

  • the personnel functional job descriptions.