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Food Safety Management Systems
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Food Safety Management Systems

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  1. Food Safety Management Systems

  2. Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge • True or False: Active managerial control focuses on controlling the most common foodborne-illness risk factors identified by the CDC • True or False: Purchasing fish directly from a local fisherman would be considered a risk in an active managerial control system • True or False: A critical control point (CCP) is a point in the flow of food where a hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels • True or False: If cooking is a CCP for ground beef patties, then ensuring the internal temperature reaches 155°F (68°C) for fifteen seconds would be an appropriate critical limit • True or False: An establishment that cures food must have a HACCP plan 10-2

  3. Food Safety Management Systems • A Food Safety Management System is: • A group of programs, procedures, and measures for preventing foodborne illness • Designed to actively control risks and hazards throughout the flow of food • Two systematic and proactive approaches • Active managerial control • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

  4. Prerequisite Food Safety Programs These must be in place for a food safety management system to be effective Supplier selection and specification programs Sanitation and pest control programs Personal hygiene program Facility design and equipment maintenance programs Food safety training programs

  5. Active Managerial Control • Active Managerial Control: • Focuses on controlling the CDC’s 5 most common risk factors responsible for foodborne illness: • Purchasing food from unsafe sources • Failing to cook food adequately • Holding food at improper temperatures • Using contaminated equipment • Practicing poor personal hygiene

  6. Active Managerial Control: The Approach • Steps for using active managerial control: Consider the five risk factors as they apply throughout the flow of food and identify any issues that could impact food safety. 1

  7. Active Managerial Control: The Approach • Steps for using active managerial control: continued Develop policies and procedures that address the issues that were identified • Consider input from staff • Provide training on these policies and procedures if necessary 2

  8. Active Managerial Control: The Approach • Steps for using active managerial control: continued Regularly monitor the policies and procedures that have been developed • This step can help determine if the policies and procedures are being followed • If not, it may be necessary to revise them, create new ones, or retrain employees 3

  9. Active Managerial Control: The Approach • Steps for using active managerial control: continued Verify that the policies and procedures you have established are actually controlling the risk factors • Use feedback from internal and external sources to adjust the policies and procedures for continuous improvement • Internal sources: records, temperature logs, and self inspections • External sources: health inspection reports, customer comments, and quality assurance audits 4

  10. Active Managerial Control Example • Consider the five risk factors as they apply throughout the flow of food and identify any issues that could impact food safety • A seafood restaurant chain identified purchasing seafood from unsafe sources as a risk in their establishment 1 10-10

  11. Active Managerial Control Example: continued • Develop policies and procedures that address the issues that were identified • To avoid buying unsafe product, the seafood restaurant chain developed a list of approved vendors • Next, they created a policy stating that seafood could only be purchased from vendors on this list 2 10-11

  12. Active Managerial Control Example: continued • Regularly monitor the policies and procedures that have been developed. • To ensure the policy was being followed, the seafood restaurant chain decided that seafood invoices and deliveries would be monitored 3 10-12

  13. Active Managerial Control Example: continued • Verify that the policies and procedures you have established are actually controlling the risk factors. • On a regular basis, the seafood restaurant chain looked at the criteria they had established for selecting seafood vendors, to ensure it was still appropriate for controlling the risk • They also decided to review their policy whenever a problem arose and change it if necessary 4 10-13

  14. HACCP: Philosophy • The HACCP Philosophy: • If significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards are identified at specific points within a product’s flow through the operation, they can be: • Prevented • Eliminated • Reduced to safe levels

  15. HACCP: The HACCP Plan • To be effective, a HACCP system must be based on a written plan: • It must be specific to each facility’s menu, customers, equipment, processes, and operations • A plan that works for one establishment may not work for another

  16. HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles • The Seven HACCP Principles Conduct a hazard analysis Determine critical control points (CCPs) Establish critical limits Establish monitoring procedures Identify corrective actions Verify that the system works Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  17. HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles • Principle One: Conduct a Hazard Analysis • Identify potential hazards in the food served by looking at how it is processed • Once common processes have been identified, determine where hazards are likely to occur for each (biological, chemical, physical) Prepare Serve Salads, cold sandwiches Grilled chicken sandwiches, hamburgers Serve Prepare Cook Prepare Chili, soup, sauces Reheat Cook Hold Serve Cool

  18. HACCP Example: Conducting a Hazard Analysis • Enrico’s looked at their menu and noted: • Several dishes, including the spicy charbroiled chicken breast, are received, stored, prepared, cooked, and served the same day They determined that: • Bacteria were the most likely hazard to food prepared by this process 10-18

  19. HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles • Principle Two: Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs) • Find the points in the process where the identified hazard(s) can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels—these are the CCPs • Depending on the process, there may be more than one CCP

  20. HACCP Example: Determine Critical Control Points CCPs • Enrico’s identified cooking as a CCP for the chicken breasts: • Cooking is the only step that will eliminate or reduce bacteria to safe levels • Since the chicken breasts were prepared for immediate service, cooking was the only CCP • Cooking is the same CCP for other products prepared and cooked for immediate service 10-20

  21. HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles • Principle Three: Establish Critical Limits • For each CCP, establish minimum or maximum limits that must be met to prevent or eliminate the hazard or to reduce it to a safe level Critical Limit

  22. HACCP Example: Establish Critical Limits • Since cooking was the CCP for Enrico’s chicken breasts: • Management determined that the critical limit would be cooking the chicken to a minimum internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) for fifteen seconds • They decided that: • The critical limit could be met byplacing the chicken breasts in thebroiler for 16 minutes 10-22

  23. HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles • Principle Four: Establish Monitoring Procedures • Determine the best way to check critical limits to ensure they are consistently met • Identify who will monitor them and how often

  24. HACCP Example: Establish Monitoring Procedures • Enrico’s chose to check the critical limit by: • Inserting a clean and sanitized thermocouple probe into the thickest part of each breast • The grill cook must check the temperature of each chicken breast to ensure it has reached 165°F (74°C) 10-24

  25. HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles • Principle Five: Identify Corrective Actions • Identify steps that must be taken when a critical limit is not met • Determine these steps in advance

  26. HACCP Example: Identify Corrective Actions • At Enrico’s, if the chicken breast has not reached its critical limit: • The grill cook must keep cooking the breast until it has been reached • This and all other corrective actions are noted in the temperature log 10-26

  27. HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles • Principle Six: Verify That the System Works • Determine if the plan is working as intended • Evaluate on a regular basis: • Monitoring charts • Records • How the hazard analysis was performed • Determine if the plan adequately prevents, reduces, or eliminates identified hazards Photo courtesy of Roger Bonafield and Dingbats

  28. HACCP Example: Verify That the System Works • To verify that the system was working, Enrico’s: • Checked temperature logs weekly to identify patterns or to determine if processes or procedures needed to be changed • They noticed: • Toward the end of each week the chicken breast often failed to meet the critical limit • They discovered their vendor was delivering a slightly larger chicken breast • They worked with the vendor to ensure they received the proper sized chicken and included a weight check during receiving 10-28

  29. HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles • Principle Seven: Establish Procedures for Record Keeping and Documentation • Keep records obtained when: • Developing your HACCP plan • Performing monitoring activities • Corrective action is taken • Equipment is validated • Working with suppliers

  30. HACCP Example: Establish Procedures For Record Keeping • Enrico’s determined that: • Time-temperature logs should be kept for 3 months • Receiving invoices should be kept for 60 days • Enrico’s uses this information to: • Support their HACCP plan • Revise their HACCP plan when necessary 10-30

  31. HACCP: When a HACCP Plan is Required • A HACCP Plan is required if an establishment: • Smokes or cures food as a method of food preservation • Uses food additives as a method of food preservation • Packages food using a reduced-oxygen packaging (ROP) method • Offers live, molluscan shellfish from a display tank • Custom-processes animals for personal use • Packages unpasteurized juice for sale to the consumer without a warning label • Sprouts beans or seeds 10-31

  32. Apply Your Knowledge: It’s the Principle of the Thing • Identify the HACCP principle defined by each statement: Checking to see if critical limits are being met Retention of documents obtained when creating and implementing a HACCP plan Assessing risk within the flow of food Specific places in the flow of food where a hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels Predetermined step taken when a critical limit is not met Minimum or maximum boundaries that must be met to prevent a hazard Determining if the HACCP plan is working as intended A B C D E F G 10-32

  33. Crisis Response: A Foodborne Illness Complaint • Responding to a foodborne illness complaint: • Take all customer complaints seriously • Express concern and be sincere • Do not admit responsibility or accept liability • Listen carefully and promise to investigate and respond • Consider developing an incident report (with legal guidance)

  34. Crisis Response: A Confirmed Foodborne Illness Outbreak • If a Foodborne Illness Outbreak is Confirmed: • Accept responsibility • Cooperate with the investigation • Crisis response may include: • Isolating suspect food • Preventing further sale of suspect food • Obtaining samples from affected customer • Excluding suspect employees from the establishment

  35. HACCP: When a HACCP Plan Is Required (2010 Update) • A HACCP plan is required if an operation: continued • Packages food using ROP methods including: • MAP • Vacuum-packed • Sous vide • Treats (e.g., pasteurizes) juice on-site and packages it for later sale • Sprouts seeds or beans • Offers live, molluscan shellfish from a display tank