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vehicle-to-grid Power. Amardeep Dhanju & Dr. Willett Kempton April 14, 2009 Center for Carbon-free Power Integration University of Delaware. Plug-in for charging. V2G with ISO Control. V2G taps an underutilized resource. US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d

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vehicle to grid power
vehicle-to-grid Power

Amardeep Dhanju & Dr. Willett Kempton

April 14, 2009

Center for Carbon-free Power Integration

University of Delaware

v2g taps an underutilized resource
V2G taps an underutilized resource
  • US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d
  • Average daily travel = 32 miles, thus most storage unused most days
  • Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW
  • US power: generation=978 GW; load=436 GW avg (EIA 2005)
  • US 241 million cars (FHWA 2005) x 15 kW = 3,615 GW, thus...
v2g taps an underutilized resource1
V2G taps an underutilized resource
  • US car used 1 hour/day, parked 23 h/d
  • Average daily travel = 32 miles, thus most storage unused most days
  • Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW
  • US power: generation=978 GW; load=436 GW avg (EIA 2005)
  • US 241 million cars (FHWA 2005) x 15 kW = 3,615 GW, thus...
  • Power of fleet is >3x generation; >8x load!
basic per vehicle values
Basic per-Vehicle Values

10 –Year Present Value V2G Revenue Potential

Assumptions: 80% availability, Reg. $40/MW-h, Spin. $10/MW-h, 7% discount rate, example calculations

business case
Business case
  • To sell V2G, need ISO wholesale contract –

1 MW minimum

  • 1 MW, with extra vehicles for reliability margin, requires 200 high power vehicles (eBox, 16-19 kW) or 1,000 - 2,000 low power (e.g. GM Volt, 20 Amp or ~3 kW)
  • Minimum 200 for ISO trial
sequence of markets
Sequence of Markets
  • Initial, high-value markets, are A/S
    • Regulation
    • Spinning reserves
  • Later, larger markets with lower value per kW:
    • Defer upgrades to distribution feeders, transformers
    • Peak load reduction, valley filling
    • Power factor correction
    • Balancing wind, shifting solar peak
mid atlantic grid interactive car consortium magicc
Mid-Atlantic Grid-Interactive Car Consortium (MAGICC)

Observers

  • Tesla Motors
  • Google.org
  • A123
  • AES Corporation
  • State of Delaware (PSC, Energy Office)
  • Anon

Partners

  • Univ. of Delaware
  • PHI: Delmarva Power, Atlantic Electric, PEPCO, etc.
  • PJM Interconnect
  • AC Propulsion
  • ACUA
  • Comverge

www.magicconsortium.org

current status
Current status
  • One vehicle working, 6 planned and funded
  • Procedure for utility interconnect approval- Done
  • Assembler is ready to build vehicles with high power and bi-directional flow capabilities
slide21
V2G Aggregator

(Car Plugged-in)

slide22
V2G Aggregator

(in V2G mode)

simple model of v2g for wind leveling
Simple model of V2G for wind leveling
  • 220 MW offshore wind power (modelled from buoy 44009 offshore Delaware)
  • Leveling target at 88 MW (40% of nameplate or 14% of average DE load), equal to 8760 average output
  • Use storage of 1000 MWh (1 GWh) to level
    • Storage from just under 30,000 EVs (28,571 eBoxes), about 4% of DE fleet
  • Simplifying assumptions: no other end use storage, no distribution power limits, driving compromised during a few long wind lulls/year
  • Equivalently, 3,250 MW capacity (100% of DE electricity) and 58% of fleet
v2g as wind leveling
V2G as wind leveling
  • Good to reduce ramp rate, fill short gaps (up to 6 hours? one day?)
  • Multi-day wind lulls in this model
    • Still need fossil or some other backup, but runs rarely
    • Long term solutions, non-surface or inherent storage
  • Half of fleet serves very roughly 100% electric -- needs model with load, etc
ongoing marketing survey
Ongoing marketing survey
  • Web-based survey
    • Sampling biased but close to early target market
    • Allows more complex tradeoffs and customization
  • Respondents will be chosen randomly from within the PJM service area.
  • Target of 1,000 respondents needed due to complex interdependencies of vehicle and V2G contract attributes
slide32
Ongoing marketing survey
  • Potential attributes to test:
    • Recharging time
    • Range with a full charge
    • Range when participating in V2G contract
    • Purchase price
    • Annual fuel cost
    • Annual income from V2G contract
    • Compensate by hours plugged in, versus value to grid
    • Trade off between V2G revenue and being guaranteed a certain level of charge
current fleet
Current Fleet
  • AC Propulsion eBoxes (one in DE, one in CA)
  • UD Fuel Cell Bus
fleet expansion2
Fleet expansion
  • To test aggregator, need multiple vehicles
  • OEMs not building grid-oriented cars
  • DOE award cost-share matched with 2 Delaware agencies + utility
    • Add 4 cars in state fleet, V2G dispatch
    • Test software on real vehicle use
  • V2G market test: 200 cars (several possible partners)
summary
Summary
  • Large-scale CO2-free power fluctuates
  • Now doing individual vehicle dispatch under AGC; simple model of wind fill-in and providing regulation services
  • Work underway
    • Software for aggregator & vehicle
    • Market research for V2G contracts
    • Dispatch on small fleet (~6 cars)
    • Fleet for A/S contract (~200)
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