3 2 1 distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds n.
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3.2.1: Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living things. (Except hydrogen carbonates, e.g. sodium hydrogen carbonate, carbonates, e.g. calcium carbonate and oxides of carbon, e.g. carbon dioxide).

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3 2 1 distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds
3.2.1: Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds

Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living things. (Except hydrogen carbonates, e.g. sodium hydrogen carbonate, carbonates, e.g. calcium carbonate and oxides of carbon, e.g. carbon dioxide)

3 2 1 carbon compounds in living organisms
3.2.1:Carbon compounds in living organisms
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrate
  • Lipid
  • Nucleic acid

(D.N.A. R.N.A.)

3 2 1 contain carbon but not considered carbon compounds in living organisms
3.2.1:Contain carbon but not considered carbon compounds in living organisms

*Hydrogencarbonates

E.g. potassium hydrogen carbonate

*Carbonates

E.g. Sodium carbonate

* Oxides of Carbon

E.g. Carbon dioxide

3 2 3 list three examples each of monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides
3.2.3: List three examples each of monosaccharides, disaccharides andpolysaccharides.

Monosaccharides (from the Greek mono, “single” and sacchar, “sugar”) are the simplest carbohydrates. Examples include: 1) glucose, 2) galactose and 3) fructose.

Disaccharides, or double sugars, are assembled when two monosaccharides are joined by condensation. Examples include: 1) maltose, 2) lactose and 3) sucrose.

Polysaccharides are polymers comprised of hundreds or thousands of simple sugars. The sugar monomers are joined by condensation. Examples include: 1) starch, 2) glycogen and 3) cellulose.

slide9

3.2.4: State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals, and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.

slide10

3.2.5: Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships

between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides; between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides; and between amino acids and polypeptides.

Each cell contains thousands of complex molecules called macromolecules.

There are four major classes of macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic acids.

Cells make their macromolecules by linking many small molecules together end to end, forming chains called polymers.

A polymer is a large molecule composed of many identical or similar subunits (monomers) strung together.

Monomers are joined together by the removal of water molecules, a process known as condensation.

The reverse process, hydrolysis, breaks polymers apart by adding water molecules.

3 2 5 condensation hydrolysis reaction2
3.2.5: Condensation/hydrolysis reaction
  • Fatty acid and glycerol

+1 H20 molecule

3 2 6 state three functions of lipids
3.2.6 State three functions of Lipids

Phospholipids function to hold cell membranes together and create a boundary between the cell and its external environment.

Steroids function as hormones.

Fats function to: 1) cushion vital organs;

2) insulate the body; and

3) store energy.