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3.2.1: Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living things. (Except hydrogen carbonates, e.g. sodium hydrogen carbonate, carbonates, e.g. calcium carbonate and oxides of carbon, e.g. carbon dioxide).
Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living things. (Except hydrogen carbonates, e.g. sodium hydrogen carbonate, carbonates, e.g. calcium carbonate and oxides of carbon, e.g. carbon dioxide)
E.g. potassium hydrogen carbonate
E.g. Sodium carbonate
* Oxides of Carbon
E.g. Carbon dioxide
Monosaccharides (from the Greek mono, “single” and sacchar, “sugar”) are the simplest carbohydrates. Examples include: 1) glucose, 2) galactose and 3) fructose.
Disaccharides, or double sugars, are assembled when two monosaccharides are joined by condensation. Examples include: 1) maltose, 2) lactose and 3) sucrose.
Polysaccharides are polymers comprised of hundreds or thousands of simple sugars. The sugar monomers are joined by condensation. Examples include: 1) starch, 2) glycogen and 3) cellulose.
3.2.4: State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals, and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.
3.2.5: Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships
between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides; between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides; and between amino acids and polypeptides.
Each cell contains thousands of complex molecules called macromolecules.
There are four major classes of macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic acids.
Cells make their macromolecules by linking many small molecules together end to end, forming chains called polymers.
A polymer is a large molecule composed of many identical or similar subunits (monomers) strung together.
Monomers are joined together by the removal of water molecules, a process known as condensation.
The reverse process, hydrolysis, breaks polymers apart by adding water molecules.
3.2.5:Hydrolysis reaction with di/polysachharide to form a monosaccharide
3.2.5:Condensation reaction with amino acids to form peptide to polypeptide
3.2.5:Condensation reaction with glycerol and fatty acids to form a triglyceride
3.2.5:Hydrolysis reaction with triglyceride to form glycerol and fatty acids
+1 H20 molecule
Phospholipids function to hold cell membranes together and create a boundary between the cell and its external environment.
Steroids function as hormones.
Fats function to: 1) cushion vital organs;
2) insulate the body; and
3) store energy.