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Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia Djibouti Burundi Eritrea South Africa Somalia Sudan PowerPoint Presentation
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Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia Djibouti Burundi Eritrea South Africa Somalia Sudan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia Djibouti Burundi Eritrea South Africa Somalia Sudan Tanzania Malawi Uganda Botswana Angola Zambia Mozambique Zimbabwe. Section 1 Kenya. Kenya. Symbolic of Africa The Lion King Game preserves – savanna National parks – protected wildlife roam

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Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia Djibouti Burundi Eritrea South Africa Somalia Sudan


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Kenya Rwanda Ethiopia • Djibouti Burundi Eritrea • South Africa Somalia Sudan • Tanzania Malawi Uganda • Botswana Angola Zambia • Mozambique Zimbabwe

    2. Section 1 Kenya

    3. Kenya • Symbolic of Africa • The Lion King • Game preserves – savanna • National parks – protected wildlife roam • The great Masai warriors • The Great Rift Valley

    4. Kenya – physical characteristics • Located on the East coast of Africa • Equator runs through the center • Lowlands vs Highlands • SW highlands- most people live • Central plateau rises to the west • North – droughts common • Fertile highlands – get enough rain • Great Rift Valley/ Lake Victoria

    5. Understanding the Past

    6. Masai vs Kikuyu – early tribes – held land • Portugal, Germany claimed • British East Africa Company

    7. British Rule • Build a railroad from the coast (Mombasa) to Nairobi in center and to Uganda • Kenya-Uganda Railroad • Problems around Tsavo • Lions were killing workers • Movie – Great Lion Hunter • Lions – Field Museum in Chicago

    8. British Rule

    9. Under British Rule • White settlers took the land from native tribes under British rule • 1950s - Mau Mau Rebellion • British crushed the rebellion • 1963 – independence from Britain • Jomo Kenyatta became president (Kikuyu) • Kikuyu regained some farm lands

    10. Economic Activities

    11. Kenya under Kenyatta • Harambee (pulling together) grass-roots movement of people putting together • Solid economic growth – • farmers raise cash crops coffee and tea • Few minerals – depended on agriculture • Cash crop of flowers used to produce pyrethrum (pesticide) • Not growing crops to feed themselves - import • People suffer from malnutrition

    12. Government and Citizenship

    13. After Independence • Stable government • 1980s population grew fast • Not enough food or jobs • Social and political unrest

    14. Politics • Accused President Daniel arap Moi of corruption • He refused multiparty elections, jailed critics • Supporters killed world famous scientist – Richard Leakey • 1992 - Agreed to hold elections • Western nations withheld loans • Moi won elections in 1992, 1997 • Defeated in 2002 – stepped aside peacefully

    15. Kenya Today • Written a new constitution abolishes the Prime Minister – August 2010 • President – Mwai Kibaki since 2002 • Parliament • Trying to create an uncorrupt government • Ethnic violence • Not enough food

    16. Search for Peace • Ethnic violence • Not enough food • Concerns about corruption in gov’t

    17. Section 2 Other Countries of East Africa

    18. Other Countries of East Africa • Key locations - Horn of Africa • Strategic value • Valuable locations for military action • On the Indian Ocean • Shipping lanes Red Sea, Gulf of Aden • Close to oil supplies in Middle East • Midpoint between SE Asia and Europe

    19. Djibouti • Earns income - strategic ports • France pays large fees - military bases • France has worked to maintain peace • Civil War 1991 • Constitution followed • Election in 1999 • Peace in 2000 • Working to repair agriculture, education, infrastructure

    20. Ethiopia • Ancient nation -3500 BC • High fertile plains • temperate climate • Troubles • Drought in 1984, 1986 – famine • Conflict with Somalia • Civil War in Eritrea (coastal province) • Government overthrown • Lost the province of Eritrea – now landlocked • Torn by ethnic division

    21. Eritrea • After independence • economy suffered • Government worked to create modern country • Capital of Asmara – rebuilt modern capital • Modern steel plant, modern housing • Borrowed little from foreign powers • Subsistence farming/herding – basis of economy • No democracy but government is working

    22. Somalia • Since its independence in 1960 • Full-scale civil war • Severe drought-1990s • Border war with Ethiopia • No effective national government • Source of many pirates • UN sent relief • Constant fighting/no supplies get to the people • UN frustrated – withdrew aid

    23. The Sudan • Largest nation in all of Africa • Climate much like Sahel • Northern area mostly ergs– shifting sand dunes • People divided • North – Muslim Arabs • South - Different ethnic tribes (animism)(Christianity) • Southern areas called the Sudd – swampy area • Continuous war since 1956 • Darfur – genocide -millions have been killed

    24. Landlocked Countries

    25. Uganda • West of Kenya • High plateau – fertile land – cotton, coffee • Prospered under Great Britain as a colony • 1962 Independence - civil war • North – people - military power struggled against • South – people - economic power • Military struggle ended with dictatorship • Idi Amin – ruthless dictator in power in the 1970-1979 • 300,000 people ‘disappeared’ - violent struggles • Mid 1990s - rebuilding • Democratic election in 2001

    26. Rwanda and Burundi • Ethnocracy – • government in which one ethnic group rules over others

    27. Rwanda • 80% Hutu • 20% Tutsi (Watusi) • Hutu in power for 35 years (after 1959) • Overthrew Tutsi gov’t -killed 100,000 Tutsi • 1994 – Civil War • 2 million Rwandans driven away • 100,000 Tutsi killed • Currently share power -free elections • Current president – 2000 -

    28. Burundi • 14% Tutsi – in power • Control/use army to hold power • Mid 1993 – held its first free election • Elected a Hutu president • Coup overthrew him • Many Hutu and Tutsi killed • Violence continues • Agreed to share power in 2004 • Currently President Nkurunziza – Hutu -2005 • Current Vice president – Hutu - 2010

    29. Tanzania • Ancient man inhabited • Ancient slave traders – Zanzibar • Germans controlled • After WW I – British control • Independence - 1961

    30. Tanzania • Land has great potential wealth • Fertile soils • Minerals – iron ore, coal, diamonds • Varied terrain • humid coastal plain • cool highlands • Lake Victoria and Mount Kilimanjaro • dry central plains • Poor development = 2nd poorest country

    31. Tanzania • Socialism • Experiment from 1961-1985 • Villagization – • Rural people forced into towns • Worked on collective farms • Failure • Moved back to free enterprise • Farmers - back to farm land - had been idle • Sold corn and cotton • Paid a fair price for crops

    32. South Africa Section 3

    33. Geography of S Africa • Mostly high, dry plateau • Surrounded by escarpment to a coastal plain • Plateau has some areas with good rain • Grow corn, wheat and variety of fruits

    34. South Africa • Country is divided by race • 76% population is black • 13% white • 9% mixed race • 3% Asian • White minority ruled over a century

    35. Movement into African Lands • 1600s settled by Dutch, Germans, French • Over time – groups became Africaners or Boers • Own language – African – combination of Dutch, French, German • White, wealthy • Pushed natives inland, claiming land by treaty or force

    36. British Takeover • British settlers arrived • pushed Africaners inland • kept pushing to assert British control • Boer War – 3 years – 1899-1902

    37. Boer War Africaners accepted British rule • Result - British colony • Africaners/British settlers • Black Africans • driven to reserves • put to work on white-owned plantations or factories

    38. Independence • S Africa became independent in 1961 • Blacks - move out of reserves • Blacks - began to rebel • Many were jailed • Leader - Nelson Mandela

    39. 1950-1980 • Fastest growing economy in world • Abundant coal = inexpensive energy • Money to invest • Excellent connection with Britain and Europe provided technology, skills, knowledge • Blacks provided large pool of cheap labor

    40. Minority Rule • Whites controlled government • Whites controlled 2/3 land and best farmland • Whites controlled gold mines • Whites controlled diamond mines • Whites controlled mines of 70 other minerals • Whites controlled thriving industries • Whites controlled the wealth

    41. Government control • White government afraid of blacks • To control them the gov’t created arbitrary regions called homelands – 75% people forced to live on 13% land • Everyone has to stay in their assigned homeland unless they were given a pass to live somewhere else • Became know as Apartheid

    42. Apartheid • Means apartness • Black Africans were segregated from the whites • Separate public facilities – schools • Facilities were never as good • Any rebels were jailed

    43. International Backlash • 1986 Europe, US placed economic sanctionson South Africa • End apartheid • Prohibited Americans from investing • Banned imports • Pressure from within through protests • Banned from the Olympics • Cost S Africa $2 billion

    44. Change F.W. de Klerk – new prime minister in 1989 • Released prominent activist Nelson Mandela who had been in prison – 27 years • Leader of African National Congress – negotiated with white government • 1990-1991 – apartheid laws were repealed • Transition of power to Black majority • 1994 – free elections – Mandela 1st president

    45. Mandela/deKlerk

    46. South Africa Today • 1996 – new constitution • Guaranteed equality in housing, health care, water, food, and education • Still some economic and social problems • Model government has kept peace • Mandela’s party still in power • President Jacob Zuma – May 2009

    47. Other Countries of Southern Africa