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Colonization of north America. M. Carter----AP US History. “Frontiers of inclusion”. Native Americans were a part of the society Intermarriage Slavery Needed to increase the population Converted to subjects. “frontiers of exclusion”.

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colonization of north america

Colonization of north America

M. Carter----AP US History

frontiers of inclusion
“Frontiers of inclusion”
  • Native Americans were a part of the society
    • Intermarriage
    • Slavery
  • Needed to increase the population
  • Converted to subjects
frontiers of exclusion
“frontiers of exclusion”
  • Native Americans were kept outside or excluded from the community.

Considering what you know about the French, Spanish and British….which were “frontiers of exclusion” and which were “frontiers of inclusion?”

  • Be prepared to defend your response.
the chesapeake colonies
The chesapeake colonies


jamestown 1607
Jamestown- 1607
  • Virginia Company of London
  • 1st permanent British settlement in the New World
  • Early years= Disaster!!!!
  • Gentlemen seeking fortune
  • Reliant on the Algonquian (Chief Powhatan)
  • “The Starving Time”
  • Growth of Tobacco
    • $$$$$
    • Export to Europe
    • Exhausted the soil
    • Led to expansion
    • Need for large labor supply
      • Headright system
      • Indentured servants
1619 a big year
1619- a big year
  • House of Burgesses
  • 1st slaves arrive in the Chesapeake
  • Tobacco
war with algonquians 1622
War with Algonquians- 1622
  • Encroaching on Native land led to a 10 year war
  • Virginia Company went bankrupt
  • Virginia became a royal colony
    • Authorities appointed by the crown
    • English economy increases, population increases
    • Native population declines
  • Land granted to the Calvert family- Lord Baltimore
  • Proprietary colony
  • Refuge for Catholics
  • Religious Toleration Act
  • Tobacco agricultural & headrights
indentured servants
Indentured servants
  • ¾ of English came to the Chesapeake as indentured servants
  • Typical Characteristics:
    • Young
    • Unskilled males (served 2-7 years)
    • Few women and children (served until age 21)
    • Some convicts (sent for service/court mandated)

Responsibilities of the Master:

    • Provide passage to the colonies
    • Feed, clothe, and house servants
    • Provide freedom dues at the conclusion of service
      • Clothing, tools, gun, small section of land and food to get started
  • Once free, indentured servants typically headed to the backcountry
  • Indentured servants were unique to the English colonies

2 out of 5 indentured servants died during their term of service

  • Continued to use indentured servants for a number of years because African and Native slaves were impractical
    • Africans were too expensive
    • Natives had a high mortality rate and were more likely to escape into the wilderness
women in the chesapeake
Women in the chesapeake
  • More men than women died. Widows tended to remarry quickly. Women had certain advantages because of this.
    • Bargained for larger shares of the estate upon their husband’s death
    • “matriarchy” in VA because of the wealth held by women
    • High mortality rate = smaller families
    • Kinship bonds much weaker than in New England

Prior to 1650

    • Few towns, churches, schools or other community institutions in place
    • Maintained close ties to England

Difficult climate and geography

  • Less favored for investment
  • Less popular for settlement
  • Protestant dissenters from England
    • Less political attention from the Crown because of the location
  • Church of England retained many characteristics of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Calvinists- Puritans- wanted to purify and reform the English church from within
    • Vocal criticism
    • Influential in Parliament and universities
    • Openly criticized the Crown
    • Repression of Puritans led to their migration to NE
  • Separatists who believed the Church of England (Anglican Church) was so corrupt they had to break away or separate.
  • Moved to Holland first
  • $$ from Virginia Co
  • Led by William Bradford
  • 102 people on board the Mayflower
  • September 1620 from Plymouth, England
  • Families and hired men
mayflower compact
Mayflower compact
  • Men on board formed a covenant and acted as a political body
  • 1st document of self-government in North America
  • ½ died during the 1st winter- disease, starvation and exposure
  • Local natives offered food and advice- Squanto
financially successful
Financially successful?
  • No!
  • In debt to their financial backers
  • A subsistent society
  • Non-Separatists
  • Began to emigrate to New England
  • John Winthrop- 1st governor of the colony
  • “city upon a hill”- a model community
  • Massachusetts Bay- Puritans given rights to settle, trade and govern the territory & the native people
  • Salem, Massachusetts was settled
city upon a hill john winthrop
City upon a hill- John Winthrop

“For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world. We shall open the mouths of enemies to speak evil of the ways of God, and all professors for God's sake. We shall shame the faces of many of God's worthy servants, and cause their prayers to be turned into curses upon us till we be consumed out of the good land whither we are going.” -excerpttaken ffrom

great migration
Great migration
  • Puritans to Massachusetts
  • Boston established
  • Settlements spread as far as the Connecticut River Valley
  • Established a General Court
    • A governor, deputy, a board of magistrates and the freemen
      • All male, head-of-households & church members