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English Colonization of North America

English Colonization of North America

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English Colonization of North America

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  1. English Colonization of North America Ideas, Institutions, and Initiatives

  2. Magna Carta Tudor Revolution in Government James Stuart (1603-1625) Struggles with Parliament Charles I (1625-1649) Interregnum and Cromwell Charles II (1660-1685) James II “Glorious Revolution” Myth and Reality of English History

  3. James I and Cromwell

  4. Capitalists and Puritans • Max Weber’s thesis • Enclosure Movement • Joint Stock Companies • Puritans and Capitalists in the House of Commons

  5. English Colonization • In part, English policies in North America were the extension of policies with the Irish • Virginia Company • First Colony of London (Settled Jamestown) • First Colony of Plymouth (Settled Massachusetts)

  6. Plymouth • Separatist Colony founded in 1620 • Mayflower Compact • Thanksgiving • Plymouth Rock (“We didn’t land on Plymouth Rock; Plymouth Rock landed on us.”—Malcolm X)

  7. Massachusetts Bay • Settled in 1630 • Puritan “City on a Hill” • John Winthrop and “Christian Magistracy” • Struggles with Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson • Half-Way Covenant

  8. John Winthrop and the City on A HillMatthew 5:14 "You are the light of the world. A city on a hill cannot be hidden." The eyes of all people are upon us, so that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and byword throughout the world; we shall open the mouths of enemies to speak evil of the ways of God and all believers for God's sake; we shall shame the faces of many of God's worthy servants, and cause their prayers to be turned into curses upon us, until we are consumed out of the good land to which we are going... For this end we must be knit together. We must entertain each other in brotherly affection. We must be willing to give up our superfluities to supply others' necessities...We must delight in each other; make others' conditions our own; rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together... So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. The Lord will be our God, and...make us a praise and a glory, that men shall say of later plantations, "May the Lord make it like that of New England."

  9. Anne Hutchinson

  10. John Winthrop’s Charges Against Anne Hutchinson Mrs Hutchinson, you are called here as one of those that have troubled the peace of the commonwealth and the churches here; you are known to be a woman that hath had a great share in the promoting and divulging of those opinions that are the cause of this trouble, and to be nearly joined not only in affinity and affection with some of those the court had taken notice of and passed censure upon, but you have spoken divers things, as we have been informed, very prejudicial to the honour of the churches and ministers thereof, and you have maintained a meeting and an assembly in your house that hath been condemned by the general assembly as a thing not tolerable nor comely in the sight of God nor fitting for your sex, and notwithstanding that was cried down you have continued the same. Therefore we have thought good to send for you to understand how things are, that if you be in an erroneous way we may reduce you that so you may become a profitable member here among us. Otherwise if you be obstinate in your course that then the court may take such course that you may trouble us no further. Therefore I would intreat you to express whether you do assent and hold in practice to those opinions and factions that have been handled in court already, that is to say, whether you do not justify Mr. Wheelwright's sermon and the petition.

  11. Pequot War-1637 • Began with allegations of an Indian’s murdering a white settler. • Colonists in Massachusetts and Connecticut, assisted by the Narragansets, exterminated many Pequots • Colonists believed they were justified in removing “savages” from lands given to them by God.

  12. King Philip’s War • Uneasy relations between Native Peoples and Expanding Puritans • Murder of “Praying Indian” John Sassamon • Colonists sought to hang three Wampanoags for killing Sassamon • Metacom and his followers attacked. • Bloody War but broke ability of Indians to resist white encroachment

  13. Virginia • Jamestown—1607 • Time of Starving—John Smith • 1619 was key year (women, representative local government, arrival of Africans) • 1622—Opechancanough and allies exact retribution on Jamestown • 1624—Virginia becomes a Royal Colony

  14. 1660 Slave Codes Dura Vitae Why slavery? Slavery

  15. Virginia • William Berkley—Royal Governor 1642-1676 • Bacon’s Rebellion

  16. Other Colonies • Maryland—haven for Catholics • Rhode Island—haven for dissenters from Massachusetts Bay Colony • Pennsylvania—Quaker Colony • New York—Dutch first, then English • Carolinas—slavery system imported from Caribbean • Georgia—originally a debtor colony

  17. Emergence of slavery Concept of Permanent Indian Frontier Local Government Religious “Pluralism” Regional Differences emerged Colonies would be biologically self-sustaining Conclusions