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Chapter Five. Individuals with Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disabilities. Defining Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disability. Terminology: Intellectual functioning Adaptive behaviors Developmental period Adaptive skill areas.

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chapter five

Chapter Five

Individuals with Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disabilities

defining mental retardation or intellectual disability
Defining Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disability

Terminology:

  • Intellectual functioning
  • Adaptive behaviors
  • Developmental period
  • Adaptive skill areas
defining mental retardation or intellectual disability5
Defining Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disability
  • 1961 AAMR definition
    • “Subaverage general intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period and is associated with impairments in adaptive behavior.”
  • 1973 AAMR definition
    • “Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, and manifested during the developmental period.”
  • 1983 AAMR definition
    • “Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairment in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period.”
defining mental retardation or intellectual disability continued
Defining Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disability continued
  • 1992 AAMR definition
    • “Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. Mental retardation manifests before age 18.”
  • 2002 AAMR definition
    • “Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18.”
assessing intellectual ability and adaptive behavior
Assessing Intellectual Ability and Adaptive Behavior
  • Assessing Intellectual Ability (IQ testing)
    • Problems:
      • Potential for cultural bias
      • Flexibility of IQ scores
      • Overemphasis on IQ scores
  • Assessing Adaptive Behavior
    • Considers the context of the individual’s environment and cultural influences
    • Often measured by direct observation, interviews, behavior rating scales
classification of individuals with mental retardation or intellectual disabilities
Classification of Individuals with Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disabilities
  • Etiological perspective
  • Intellectual deficits
  • Educational perspective
  • Levels of supports
brief history of the field
Brief History of the Field
  • Early Civilizations
  • The Middle Ages
  • Early optimism (early nineteenth century)
  • Protection and pessimism (late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries)
  • Emergence of public education for students with mental retardation
possible sources for causes of mental retardation
Possible Sources for Causes of Mental Retardation
  • Prenatal (before birth)
    • chromosomal, maternal infections, environmental factors, unknown influences
  • Perinatal (during birth)
    • gestational disorders, neonatal complications
  • Postnatal (after birth)
    • infections and intoxicants, environmental factors
prevention of mental retardation and intellectual disabilities
Prevention of Mental Retardation and Intellectual Disabilities
  • Prevention Levels:
    • Primary (before onset or occurrence)
      • Prenatal care, genetic testing, ultrasound
    • Secondary (reduce risk factors)
      • Newborn screening
    • Tertiary (interventions)
      • Aimed at maximizing the quality of life for a person with a disability
characteristics of individuals with mental retardation or intellectual disabilities
Learning Characteristics

-attention

-memory

-academic performance

-motivation

-generalization

-language development

Social and Behavioral

Characteristics

-interpersonal skills

-socially appropriate

interactions

-friendships

Characteristics of Individuals with Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disabilities
educational considerations
Educational Considerations
  • Functional academics/functional curriculum
  • Community-based instruction

IEP teams must consider:

student and family preferences, student’s age and years left in school, rate of learning, current and future settings, other skill needs

effective instructional techniques
Effective Instructional Techniques
  • High expectations
  • Task analysis
  • Cooperative learning
  • Scaffolding
  • Inclusion strategies:
    • Modify instruction, materials, and assessments
    • Teach organizational skills
    • Monitor progress of all students
    • Collaborate with families
services for young children with mental retardation or intellectual disabilities
Services for Young Children with Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disabilities

Early intervention can be defined as the services and supports rendered to children with disabilities or those who evidence risk factors, younger than age 5, and their families.

transition into adulthood
Transition into Adulthood
  • Transition planning
    • Independent living
    • Employment
      • Sheltered workshop
      • Supported competitive employment
      • Job coach
adults with mental retardation
Adults with Mental Retardation
  • Integration in all aspects of daily life with nondisabled peers
  • Self-determination: decision-making capacity must be fostered
  • Self-advocacy: encourage people with mental retardation to advocate for their own wants and needs
family issues
Family Issues
  • Families with a child with mental retardation may experience a wide range of concerns and often rely on a support network made up of friends and family members in addition to parent organizations and professional groups.
issues of diversity
Issues of Diversity
  • Overrepresentation of minority students in special education programs
  • Culturally biased assessment tools and practices
  • Teacher expectations
technology and individuals with mental retardation or intellectual disabilities
Technology and Individuals with Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disabilities
  • Instructional technology
  • Assistive technology
technology and individuals with mental retardation or intellectual disabilities continued
Technology and Individuals with Mental Retardation or Intellectual Disabilities (continued)
trends issues and controversies
Trends, Issues, and Controversies
  • Genetic testing
  • Quality of life
  • Attitudinal changes
  • Technology and medical advances
  • Inclusive education
  • Increased self-advocacy and self-determination