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The Reformation Continues

The Reformation Continues. Chapter 17 Section 4 Pg. 433. Who started the Reformation? Martin Luther What was Martin Luther upset about? The selling of indulgences What are indulgences? Free pass for sins Why did Henry VIII leave the church? Wanted a divorce (a son) What is a protestant?

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The Reformation Continues

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  1. The Reformation Continues Chapter 17 Section 4 Pg. 433

  2. Who started the Reformation? • Martin Luther • What was Martin Luther upset about? • The selling of indulgences • What are indulgences? • Free pass for sins • Why did Henry VIII leave the church? • Wanted a divorce (a son) • What is a protestant? • A Christian who doesn’t recognize the pope as the head of the church

  3. Calvin Begins another Protestant Church • John Calvin just 12 years old the year Martin Luther stood trial at Worms • Born in France, Calvin grew up to have as much influence as Martin did • 1536 published book, Institutes of Christian Religion -Expressed ideas about God, salvation, human nature -Created a system of Protestant theology

  4. John Calvin

  5. Calvin thought people were sinful by nature and couldn’t earn Salvation • Believed in Predestination- God knows from the beginning of time who will be saved, those people are called the “elect” • Religion based on Calvin’s teachings called Calvinism

  6. Calvinism • Believed ideal government was a theocracy (a government controlled by religious leaders) • Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their city- he did so with strict rules • Everyone attended religious class, couldn’t wear bright clothing or play cards • Authorities imprison or excommunicate anyone breaking rules

  7. John Knox • People were burned at the stake, if preached differently • To many protestants, Geneva was an ideal city • John Knox, preacher from Scotland put the same ideas into Scottish towns after visiting Geneva

  8. Calvinism Spreads • Protestant nobles, led by Knox succeeded in making Calvinism Scotland’s official religion • Followers of Knox became known as Presbyterians • Swiss, Dutch and French reformers adopted Calvinist form of church organization • Although many protestant churches trace roots to Calvin, they have softened Calvin’s strict teachings

  9. http://pages.uoregon.edu/dluebke/Reformations441/EuropeanReligions1560.jpghttp://pages.uoregon.edu/dluebke/Reformations441/EuropeanReligions1560.jpg

  10. Huguenots • In France, Calvin's followers were called Huguenots • Hatred between Catholics and Huguenots led to violence • On one occasion, mobs of Catholics began hunting for Protestants and brutally murdered them after a Catholic feast known as St. Bartholomew’s Day

  11. Other Reformers • Protestants taught that people should read the bible, as it was the source for truth • Christians start interpreting the bible for themselves=new Protestant groups form based on those beliefs

  12. Anabaptists • Believed in baptizing only adults who choose to be Christian • Believed church and state should be separate • Refused to fight in wars • Viewed by Catholics and Protestants as radicals who threaten society • The forerunners of the Amish and Mennonites, influencing the quakers

  13. Mostly live in northeastern part of US

  14. Women of Reformation • Marguerite Navarre, sister of King Francis I, protected John Calvin for being executed while in France • Martin Luther’s wife, Katherina, managed family finances and argued with her husband about women’s equal role in marriage

  15. The Catholic Reformation • While Protestant churches had many followers, millions were true to the Catholic church • Helping Catholics stay loyal was a movement within the church called the Catholic Reformation

  16. Ignatius of Loyola • Grew up in fathers castle in Loyola, Spain • Turning point in his life came while recovering from an injury during war • Thought about his sins and life of Jesus • Wrote book called Spiritual Exercises, laying out a day to day plan of prayer, study and meditation

  17. For next 18 years, Ignatius gathered followers • 1540, the pope made his followers a religious order called the Society of Jesus • Members were called Jesuits • Concentrated on 3 activities: 1)found superb schools throughout Europe 2)convert non-Christians to Catholicism 3) stop Protestantism from spreading

  18. Reforming Popes • 2 popes took the lead in reforming the Catholic Church • Pope Paul III called a council of church leaders to meet in Trent, Italy • Known as Council of Trent Pope Paul III

  19. Council of Trent • Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines: -church’s interpretation of the bible is final, anyone interpreting different was a heretic -Christians need faith and good works for salvation- not just faith as Luther suggested -Bible and church tradition equal authorities for guiding Christian life -indulgences valid expressions of faith

  20. Pope Paul IV • Paul IV, another reforming pope carried out councils decrees • Made a list of books considered to be dangerous to Catholic faith- Index of Forbidden Books • Bishops ordered to burn them (along with Protestant Bibles) • In 1 day, 10,000 books burned in Venice

  21. Index of Forbidden Books

  22. Legacy of the Reformation • Reformation had lasting effects: • Protestant churches flourish • Religion no longer unites Europe • Church power declines • Individual monarchs and states gain power • Help set the stage for the modern world

  23. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xMWCEMBBVc&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL29BE9742B998319D “weather” Tudor Times http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qq2LNi6yRuQ Axe Factor http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fbyBtiwAXX0&feature=related Tudor Diet Plan http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j0Qv9uSNWCk&feature=related Tudor $ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QekjU1j1RB8 Tudor Football http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2hg27CVmoY&feature=autoplay&list=PL29BE9742B998319D&lf=results_main&playnext=2 Anne Boleyn http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&NR=1&v=nVMj_bwQQ3Q Tudor Laws

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