OVERVIEW Navigation Definitions Basic Navigational Instruments Dead Reckoning and Pilotage Nav Aids
DEFINITIONS NDB – Non Directional Beacon VOR –VHF Omni Directonal Rage DME – Distance Measuring Equipment ILS – Instrument Landing System SDF – Simplified Directional Facility INS – Inertial Navigation System IRS – Inertial Reference System GPS – Global Positioning System WAAS – Wide Area Augmentation System RNAV – Area Navigation RNP – Required Navigational Performance
NAVIGATION CLASSES Class I Navigation – Enroute operations conducted entirely WITHIN Operational Service Volumes (ex VOR Standard Service Volumes or established on federal airways). Class II Navigation – Enroute operations conducted entirely OUTSIDE Operational Service Volumes.
BASIC NAVIGATIONAL INSTRUMENTS - Magnetic Compass - Heading Indicator - H.S.I - VOR Receiver - ADF - MFD - RNAV Systems GPS INS/IRU FMS
DEAD RECKONING & PILOTAGE Pilotage – Navigation by visual reference to landmarks Dead Reckoning – Navigation solely by means of computations based on airspeed, course, heading, wind direction & speed, ground speed, and elapsed time. VFR Flight is commonly done with a combination of both, using forms of electronic navigation as a backup
PILOTAGE - Plotting a course on a VFR navigational chart, noting distinct visual landmarks (antennas, roads, rivers, towns, etc) - “Bracketing” using distinctive landmarks that indicate acceptable levels of deviation off course (Ex. If I remain west of the Hudson river, I'll remain on course)
DEAD RECKONING - Commonly done with the combination of a flight log and a flight computer (E6-B, CR-3, etc) - Calculating a speed, track & distance in relation to wind will indicate a ground speed, wind correction angle, and time to each checkpoint.
NAVAIDS - Ground based Navigational sources (electronic navigation) - VOR, VOR/DME, VORTAC (VHF & UHF) - Navigational track to & from a station based on radial selected (or across a radial in the case of off route navigation). DME allows for slant distance from the station - NDB, NDB/DME, Compass locator (LF) - Indicates the bearing directly to the station
NAVAIDS - LOCALIZER (VHF) - Similar to a VOR, however allows navigational information to and from a specific course - ILS (VHF & UHF) - Combined localizer and Glide Slope indications, Offering both lateral and vertical navigation.
QUESTIONS 1. Define Class I & II navigation 2. You're flying off federal airways, but you are within the service volume of a VOR, are you performing Class I or II navigation? 3. What is meant by bracketing in the case of pilotage?
PRINCIPLES - Components - Satellites - Ground stations (WAAS/LAAS) - Receivers - GPS Receiver translates precise distance and time from each satellite and/or ground stations to create a highly accurate 3 dimensional position.
SATELLITES - 31 Satellite constellation (originally 24) - Recent satellite additions guarantee that at least 8 satellites are within line of sight at all times. - Maintained by the USAF - Constellation requires frequent up keep and re-alignment
GROUND STATIONS - Used only for WAAS & LAAS operations - Wide-area Reference Stations (WRS) - Monitor GPS satellite signals and make corrections for errors (such as clock misalignment to atmospheric events) - Sends these errors back to the satellites to adjust errors - Located at most Air Traffic Control Centers in the US, Canada, Mexico and Puerto Rico(list includes New York, Boston, and San Juan Centers)
RECIEVERS VFR Recievers - Hand held units - Panel mounts not hardwired to aircraft's avionics - Mobile devices or tablets IFR Recievers - Panel Mounted - WAAS capable units - Internally part of FMS or ADHRS unit
OPERATION - Receiver uses signal from at least 4 satellites (5 for RAIM) - Receiver measures the time and distance from all 4 satellites, creating a 3 dimensional position
ERROR Some causes of signal loss include: - Atmospheric Effects - Blockage from line of sight - Jammers or disruptors - Antenna placement
ACCURACY (RNP TYPES) Phase of Flight En route Terminal Area Approach LPV Accuracy - 5 NM - 1 NM - .3 NM - 40 Meters
RAIM Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring - Monitors signal from GPS satellites & alerts the pilot of possible signal corruption - Requires 5 satellites or 4 with altimeter input - RAIM is required when using a GPS for IFR navigation while not actively monitoring another navigation source
Predictive RAIM Information on RAIM outages can be obtained by: - FSS - ATC - fltplan.com - NOTAMs
FAULT DETECTION - GPS/FMS units display RAIM or signal failure in various ways - Review the aircraft's GPS/FMS manual.
APPROACHES & GPS RECIEVERS - Arm the approach prior to 30 NM out (if possible) CDI scaling will change from 5 NM to 1 NM & the GPS unit will indicate “ARM” (depending on the unit) - At 2 NM from the FAWP, CDI scaling will change from 1 NM to .3 NM - Missed Approach: .3NM unitl first turn, then 1 NM
GPS APCH MINIMUMS LNAV – Lateral Nav Classic Non-Precision GPS Apch LNAV / VNAV – Lateral Nav with Vertical Nav “Precision like” Apch quality, but higher minimums then LPV LPV – Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance ILS like performance
AIM REQUIREMENTS - Non WAAS GPS units are only allowed to to use LNAV minimums - WAAS units will specify what is the lowest minimums for the selected approach when they enter approach mode - WAAS units allow you to file an airport with only GPS approaches as an alternate, as long as you use LNAV mins
GPS APCH TAAs - Terminal Arrival Areas - Basic “T” Design - Designed to provide a seamless transition from the enroute to approach phase
GPS OVERLAYS - Allows for a IFR GPS unit's navigation signal to be used in lieu of ground based stations
INITALIZATION - Check for appropriate and or expired database - Database change every 28 days - Check nav instrument self test
USE ON NON RNAV APPROACHES - GPS information can be used to substitute requirements for approaches such as DME, ADF, or cross radials- However, CANNOT be used to substitute a stand alone procedure
FLIGHT PLAN OPERATIONS - ALWAYS DOUBLE CHECK FLIGHT PLAN ROUTE - Entered the wrong GON in this flight plan...
QUESTIONS 4. What's the acceptable level of RNP accuracy for each of the following flight segments? Enroute, Terminal, Approach 5. Can you file an airport as an alternate if it only has GPS approaches if you have a WAAS unit? What minimums would you use?
QUESTIONS 6. An ILS approach procedure says “ADF REQUIRED”. If you have a IFR GPS do you need a working ADF? 7. How often do GPS databases need to be updated?
THE FUTURE OF PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION - Since 2005, the FAA has continued to implement the use of performance based navigation - PBN allows aircraft with various types of equipment to seamlessly run in the NAS
OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE GAINED - Increased predictability of operations - Reduced pilot/ controller workload - Reduced full burn during climb & descent phases - Reduced miles in trail per TRACON/ ARTCC sequencing
RNAV 1 & 2 RNAV 1 – total system error of not more than 1 NM for 95% of the total flight time RNAV 2 – total system error of not more than 2 NM for 95% of the total flight time
RNAV SIDS, ODPs, D.Ps, & STARS - GPS sensitivity must be set to 1 NM - Procedures must be in the GPS database - Terminal RAIM should automatically be applied to the receiver
RNAV ENROUTE Q – Routes - RNAV equipped aircraft - Between 18,000 and FL450 T – Routes - RNAV equipped aircraft - 1,200ft AGL up to but not incl 18,000ft
Q – ROUTES & T – ROUTES CONT - All Q & T routes are RNAV – 2 unless otherwise stated on charts - ATC may vector an aircraft off such routes for aircraft separation
ATC RADAR SURVEILLANCE REQUIREMENTS VFR Flight following - ATC offers service only on a workload and time permitting basis, however they must offer services if they are capable. - Aircraft on VFR transponder codes will not receive a low altitude alert from ATC (something to consider flying at night)
RNAV AUTHORIZATION Approved operations per Ops specsClass II Navigation - C525 RNAV SIDs & STARs - C525
QUESTIONS 8. What's the equipment suffix of the plane you're scheduled to fly next? If that airplane was equipped with RVSM (if it isn't already), what would be it's suffix? 9. Can you fly an RNAV STAR in an aircraft that is equipped and approved per ops specs? What if the procedure wasn't in the database, could you enter the waypoints manually?