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Business Communication. 09.10.12. Communication. the process of transmitting a message from one person to another through a proper channel. Elements of communication. Sender / encoder Receiver / decoder Message Channel and medium. Lecture topics. Oral communication

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the process oftransmitting a messagefromoneperson to anotherthrough a properchannel

elements of communication
Elements ofcommunication





lecture topics
Lecture topics

Oral communication

Written communication

Non-verbal communication

Communication in an organisation

Communication flows

  • The message is the main idea that you wish to communicate.
  • It is of both verbal (written or spoken) symbols and nonverbal (unspoken) symbols.
  • First decide exactly what your message is, also consider the receiver of your message.
oral communication
Oral communication

Verbal communication is simply the communication that is expressed through words. What you say is verbal communication. What you don't say is nonverbal communication. Verbal communication is vital to healthy relationships, businesses and groups.

inside an organisation
Inside an organisation

Oral communication may take the form of:

Staff meeting reports, face to face discussions, presentations, audio tapes, telephonic chats, teleconferences or videotapes.

oral communication s trategies
Oral Communication Strategies

Ask questions



Use nonverbals

ask questions
Ask Questions

Questions are a verbal communication strategy that can help to ensure clarity and accuracy of the messages being exchanged. Questions are used for clarity and to inspire more conversation. If you have a difficult time starting a conversation, use questions about the other person’s life and interests to spark momentum in the dialogue.


Think about what you’re going to say before you say it. Determine who the audience is that the message is going to be communicated to and plan the delivery and word usage accordingly. This strategy works well if you are going to be speaking publicly or giving a presentation. Pre-meditated verbal communication is more accurate, precise and condensed, making it more effective.


Repeat the message you heard back to the person who sent it. Repeating the message back in your own words will help your perspective and evaluation of the message. It will expose areas of misunderstanding or lacking clarity. If you’re the person sending the verbal message, ask the recipient to repeat the message back to you so you can assess if she understood what you were attempting to say.

use non verbals

The use of non-verbalswith verbal communication helps to deliver the message more effectively. Non-verbalsthat are commonly used to increase verbal communications effectiveness are visual aids, body language and charts

written communication
Written Communication

written communication - communication by means of written symbols (either printed or handwritten)

welcome letter
Welcome letter

Practice: write a welcome letter to a new employee of your company

non verbal communication
Non-verbal Communication

iscommunicationoffeelings, emotions, attitudes, andthoughtsthroughbodymovements / gestures / eyecontact, etc.

components of non verbal communication
Components of Non-verbal Communication







Physical appearance

  • It isthestudyoffacialexpressions, postures & gestures.
  • In Argentina to raise a fistintheairwithknucklespointingoutwardsexpressesvictory, but inLebanon, raising a closedfistisconsideredrude.
  • isthestudyoftheroleofeyecontactinnonverbalcommunication.
  • In thefirst 90 sec - 4 min youdecidethatyouareinterestedinsomeoneornot. Studiesrevealthat 50% ofthis first impressioncomesfromnon-verbalcommunicationwhichincludesoculesics. Only 7% comesfromwords - thatweactuallysay.
  • isthestudyoftouching.
  • Acceptableleveloftouchingvaryfromoneculture to another.InThailand, touchingsomeone'sheadmaybeconsideredasrude.
  • isthestudyofmeasurable distance betweenpeopleastheyinteract.
  • Theamountofpersonalspacewhenhavinganinformalconversationshouldvarybetween 18 inches - 4 feet, whilethepersonal distance neededwhenspeaking to a crowdofpeopleshouldbearound 10-12 feet?
  • isthestudyofuseoftimeinnonverbalcommunication. Haveyoueverobservedthatwhileanemployeewillnotworryaboutrunning a fewminuteslate to meet a colleague, a managerwhohas a meetingwiththe CEO, a latearrivalwillbeconsideredas a nonverbalcuethathe / shedoesnotgiveadequaterespect to hissuperior?
  • isthestudyofvariationsinpitch, speed, volume, andpauses to conveymeaning. Interestingly, whenthespeakerismaking a presentationandislookingfor a response, hewillpause. However, when no responseisdesired, hewilltalkfasterwithminimalpause.
physical appearance
physical appearance
  • Yourphysicalappearancealwayscontributestowardshowpeopleperceiveyou. Neatlycombedhair, ironedclothesand a livelysmilewillalwayscarrymoreweightthanwords.
importance of non verbal communication
Importance of non-verbal communication

Remember, “whatwesay” is less importantthan “howwesay it” aswordsareonly 7% ofourcommunication. Understandandenjoynonverbalcommunicationas it helpsformingbetter first impressions. Goodluck!

the importance of communication in an organisation
The importance of communication in an organisation

Promotes motivation

Source of information

Alters individual’s attitudes

Helps in socializing

Assists in controlling process

the importance of communication in an organisation1
The importance of communication in an organisation

Aneffectiveandefficientcommunicationsystemrequiresmanagerialproficiencyindeliveringandreceivingmessages. The primaryresponsibilityof a manageris to developandmaintainaneffectivecommunicationsystemintheorganization.

communication in an organisation1
Communication in an organisation

Forms of Business Structure

Entrepreneurial - decisions made centrally

Pyramid - staff have a role, shared decision making, specialisation is possible

Matrix - staff with specific skills join project teams, individuals have responsibility

Independent - seen in professions where organisation provides support systems and little else

communication flows in an organisation
Communication flows in an organisation

Inanorganization, communicationflowsin 5 maindirections-

  • Downward
  • Upward
  • Lateral
  • Diagonal
  • External
downward flow of communication

Communicationthatflowsfrom a higherlevelinanorganization to a lowerlevelis a downwardcommunication.

downward communication
Downward communication

Organizationalpublications, circulars, lettersto employees, groupmeetingsetcareallexamplesofdownwardcommunication

upward flow of communication
  • Communicationthatflows to a higherlevelinanorganizationiscalledupwardcommunication. It providesfeedbackonhowwelltheorganizationisfunctioning. Thesubordinatesuseupwardcommunication to conveytheirproblemsandperformances to theirsuperiors.
lateral horizontal communication
Lateral / HorizontalCommunication


communicationbetweenpeers, betweenmanagersatsamelevelsorbetweenanyhorizontallyequivalentorganizationalmember.

diagonal communication
  • Communicationthattakesplacebetween a managerandemployeesofotherworkgroups.

E.g.To design a trainingmodule a trainingmanagerinteractswithanOperationspersonnel to enquireaboutthewaytheyperformtheirtask.

diagonal communication1
  • Communicationthattakesplacebetween a managerandemployeesofotherworkgroups.

E.g.To design a trainingmodule a trainingmanagerinteractswithanOperationspersonnel to enquireaboutthewaytheyperformtheirtask.

grapevine communication
  • Informal Business Communication
  • ExamplesofGrapevineNetworkofCommunication
  • Supposetheprofitamountof a companyisknown. Rumourisspreadthatthismuchprofitisthereandonthatbasisbonusisdeclared.
  • CEO maybeinrelation to theProductionManager. Theymayhavefriendlyrelationswitheachother.
feedback communication

Feedbackisessentialincommunicationsoas to knowwhethertherecipienthasunderstoodthemessageinthesame terms asintendedbythesenderandwhetherheagrees to thatmessageornot.