Ancient Indian Civilizations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient Indian Civilizations

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  1. Ancient Indian Civilizations 2500 B.C. – 500 A.D.

  2. Indus River Valley • South of the Himalayas • Difficult to enter valley • Ganges River flows through fertile valley • Indus River flows across drier plain

  3. Indus River Valley (cont) • Monsoons are winds that mark the seasons • Fall/Winter = little rain • Spring/Summer • heavy rains • Too little/late = crops fail

  4. Early Civilizations • Harappa and Mohenjo Daro • Large cities, carefully planned • Water systems, public baths, and brick sewers • Strong central fortress or citadel

  5. Early Civilizations (cont) • Indo-Aryans • From central Asia • Written language, Sanskrit • Caste System • Class structure that determines a person’s occupation, economic potential, and social status • In part, based on skin color

  6. Early Civilizations (cont) • Mauryan Empire • Strong army equipped with elephants and chariots • Rigid bureaucracy • Aśoka • Greatest ruler, converted to Buddhism • Set up hospitals for people and animals • Ordered a system of shade trees and shelters for travelers

  7. Early Civilizations (cont) • Gupta Rulers • Era of prosperity/trade • Hinduism becomes dominant religion • Religious tolerance of Buddhism • Later extravagance by rulers led to decline

  8. 232 B.C. Chandragupta Maurya becomes founder of Mauryan Empire Chandragupta II

  9. Hinduism • Appears polytheistic, but it is monistic • God is one, but goes by many names

  10. Hinduism (cont) • Believe in reincarnation • Souls are reborn into another body • Dharma – person’s moral duty in this life • Karma – good/bad force created by actions • Live until you get it right, Nirvana • Practice yoga, mental/physical exercises that bring the body and soul together

  11. Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha or “Enlightened One” • Led privileged life until he became aware of human suffering • Taught ethics and selflessness • Reincarnation and nirvana were available to everyone

  12. not carrying out harsh or mean thoughts eight Siddhartha Gautama’s

  13. Cultural Achievements • Education • Higher castes = formal education • Lower castes = crafts and trades • Algebra • Astronomy • Medicine – inoculations from diseases