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timm echelle spectrometer to study the atmosphere of mars

TIMM: ECHELLE-SPECTROMETER TO STUDY THE ATMOSPHERE OF MARS

O. Korablev1, F. Montmessin2, A. Trokhimovsky1, A.A. Fedorova1, A.V. Kiselev1, J.L. Bertaux2, J.P. Goutail2, D.A. Belyaev1, A.V. Stepanov3,1, A.Yu. Titov4, Yu.K. Kalinnikov5, O.N. Andreev1, O.E. Kozlov1, A. Venkstern1.

1 Space research Institute (IKI), Moscow

2 LATMOS, Guyancourt, France

3 Physical faculty, Moscow State University

4 Special Design Office of IKI, Tarusa, Kaluga reg.

5 VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo, Moscow reg.

slide2

Methane on Mars: detection from the Earth and PFS/Mars Express

  • Krasnopolsky et al. 2004
  • CFHT (3.6 m@ 4.2 km alt) FTS, resolution 0.017 cm-1 (ν/δν = 180,000)
  • 15 linesCH4 at 3.3 µm
  • Methane detected at 10 ± 3 ppb
  • PFS/MEX : resolution 1.2 cm-1
  • Mean 10.5 ppb, variations 0-30 ppb
astronomical mapping of methane
Astronomical mapping of methane

Gemini-South, Keck-II telescopes

Echelle-spectrometers

Mumma et al. 2009

methane detected questions arising
Methane detected ? Questions arising…
  • Biogenic/Abiotic sources
    • Rarified biota
    • Gas hydrate deposits
    • The 13С/12С ration in methane
  • Methane is photochemically stable (lifetime~300 y). What could explain its variability?
  • Sinks of methane?
    • Atmospheric electricity?
    • Resulting products  formaldehyde?

 New measurements from the orbit and on the surface of mars are needed

recent measurements epsc dps in nantes
Recent measurements: EPSC-DPS in Nantes
  • Krasnopolsky (EPSC-DPS in Nantes from abstract): CSHELL/IRTF February 2006: methane below 10 ppb
  • Villanueva et al (EPSC-DPS in Nantes): CRIRES/VLT, NIRSPEC/Keck-2, CSHELL/IRTF 2009-2010: low upper limits for methane
  • PFS: Geminale et al. PSS 2011
trace gases in the atmosphere and new missions
Trace gases in the atmosphere and new missions
  • Mars Science Laboratory (2011) rover
    • TDLAS in SAM (Webster&McHaffy PSS 2011)
    • Concentration and isotope measurements
  • ExoMars (ESA) Trace Gas Orbiter (2016)
    • MATMOS (JPL, Fourier occultation spectrometer)
    • NOMAD (Belgium +, Echelle spectrometer occultation + nadir)
  • Phobos-Grunt:
    • AOST: Fourier-spectrometer : 0.9 cm-1 in occultation
    • TIMM: Echelle spectrometer 0.1 cm-1 in occultation
timm 2
TIMM-2 = ТИММ
  • Echelle-AOTF instrument (similar to SOIR/VEX)
  • Main goal : methane detection and profiling in solar occultation
  • Added to the payload after the shift of launch to 2011
  • Occupies the resources of Italian TIMM (thermal IR mapping of Phobos; was not delivered)
  • Delivered to Lavochkin Assoc in July 2011 and put on the s/c
  • Officially included in the payload: Aug 2011
  • successful tests onboard: Sept 2011
science goals
Science goals
  • Sensitive measurements of minor species (high signal/noise, high resolving power Δν~0.1 cm-1)
  • CH4(detection threshold <0.5 ppb, 20 times below present)
  • HDO/H2O
  • Aerosol profiling
  • Other minor species
  • CO2 isotopes
  • For methane: first CH4measurements from the orbit around Mars after PFS:
    • Confirm detection
    • Confirm variability ?-limited mission time
  • ForHDO:
    • First simultaneous measurements ofHDO/H2O  D/H (known from groundbased astronomy, HDOandH2Omeasured separately)
    • Vertical profiles
  • For aerosol: vertical profiling of optical properties in broad spectral range
    • determine size distributions
    • Together with AOST: determine the ratio of visible/thermal infrared opacity
mission scenario
Mission scenario

In the vicinity of Mars: Ls=170–264°. Global Dust Storm ?

timm heritage
TIMM heritage

Echelle+AOTF combination

RUSALKA/ISS Made in IKI

SOIR/Venus Express Made in Belgium

timm 2 design drivers
TIMM-2 design drivers
  • Provide sufficient spectral resolution resolve methane and HDO/H2O features
  • Extremely limited development time (and budget)
  • Very limited space onboard (2010 passed essentially in negotiating the mechanical envelope)
  • Resulting largest dimension 260 mm
  • Empty place for TIMM-2
  • Trying on the STM (1.02.2011)
slide13

+X

Sun direction

TIMM LOS

spectral coverage
spectral coverage
  • Standard echelle grating (Newport/RGL):
    • loose spectral coverage

+ No influence of AOTF sidelobes

+ Most of minor species of interest covered

timm orders
TIMM orders

Could not combine Q-branch of CH4 and isolated HDO features

P4 line of methane (23 order)

No possibility for HCl, C2H6 etc

CO2, H2O, CO well covered

main optical components
main optical components

Telescope (Cassegrain, Al mirrors)

HgCdTe320x256SOFRADIRMARSMWdetector (LATMOS)

AOTF

Spectrometer

spectrometer
Spectrometer

3.39 HeNe laser:

λ/Δλ≈25000

electronic block diagram

SIOK (S/C),

GCE

FPGA

Controller

Controller MIL1553

Photometers pointing sensor

AOTF

ADC

Service port

FPGA registers

GCE

SOFRADIR

ADC

FIFO

Flash

Ricor cooler

TIMM

Electronic block diagram
ir spectroscopy
IR-spectroscopy

Fourier Spectrometer

AOST

  • Martian atmosphere
    • Methane, minor constituents (by Sun occultations)
    • Profiles of temperature; diurnal variations
    • Monitoring of aerosols
  • Martian soil
    • Discriminating chemically-bound and adsorbed water bands
    • Diurnal variations (temperature profiles, surface frosts)
  • Phobos
    • Global mineralogical mapping (from quasi-synchronous orbit)
    • Site spectrospy at cm-scale (after landing)

Spectral range 2,5 – 25 μ

Resolution:0.9 cm-1

Field of view - 2.3 deg

Mass4 kg

PI: O. Korablev, IKI

aost signal to noise and calibration spectra
AOST: signal-to-noise and calibration spectra

Estimation of S/N

Laboratory BB spectrum

(T=950°C; 5 s measurement)