Chapter 1 & 2 Notes The Conquistadores, Incas, Aztecs and Explorers
Why did the Spanish leave their land to Explore others? • Constant Warfare in Spain • So the people without much land or money (who had great fighting skills) fled • (War known as the Reconquista)
New Empires in Americas • Conquistadores • Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas
Hernan Cortes (1519) • (What) Spanish – sent to Mexico by the governor of Cuba. • (Why) To look for the “lost expedition” as well as establish trade. • To prevent soldiers from turning back, Cortes sank their ships and then headed to look for Montezuma (the man with all the riches)
*****Aztec Empire**** • Moctezuma – Aztec King; Tenochtitlan – Capital • Malintzin/Malinche – An Indian woman who helped Cortes (gathered enemies of the Aztec) • Quetzalcoatl – Aztec God – Moctezema thought Cortes was a mythical God who, according to legend, would come back to rule • Spanish and Aztecs fought (Spanish advantage – had horses and guns) (Aztecs had many more fighters- about a few thousand to only 500 Spanish)
Result??? • Cortes & other enemies defeat Aztecs!!! • When Cortes was challenged by another ruler (governor of Cuba) he went and defeated him on the eastern coast. • The Aztecs at this time rebelled and took back their city while Cortes was gone. • Cortes didn’t want to be defeated-although he had lost a lot of his soldiers in battle, he gathered thousands of Indian soldiers and fought a 3 week bloody battle with the Aztecs that destroyed Tenochtitlan!
Other Conquistadores!! • Francisco Pizarro • When: 1531 • Where: Peru/South America • Why: Looking for the “City of Gold” • Found Inca Indians • Territory (Central Chile to Columbia) • Ruler: Atahuallpa (tricked and killed by Pizarro) • Result: Conquered Inca Empire (1534)
Pizzaro was tricky- after taking the 26,000 pounds of silver as ransom- he killed Atahuallpa instead of freeing him!!!
Ponce de Leon (Spain) • When: 1508-1509, 1513, 1521 • Where: Florida, Puerto Rico, Cuba • Why: Searching for the Fountain of Youth/Gold • Results • Never found the Fountain of Youth • Returned in 1521 and died from an arrow wound while fighting American Indians (went to Florida twice looking for the fountain).
Explorers Christopher Columbus • Where: Spain • When: 1492 (Bahamas, Portugal, San Salvadore, Hispaniola), 1493-1496, 1498, 1502-1504 • Why: Looking for trade route to India • Results: Earth is round; New countries & continent; wealth; Dev. Of Western Hemisphere
Balboa Balboa (Spain) • When: 1513 • Where: Panama, Central America, Caribbean • Why: Find gold/riches • Result: Found Pacific Ocean • *Gave Spanish explores a waterway to Asia for trade
Magellan Ferdinand Magellan (Spain) • Why: Find a sea route to Asia • Where: Philippines, India, Argentina, & Uruguay • Results: 1st to Circumnavigate the world (Find an all water route to Asia) • Straits of Magellan
Cabot Henry Cabot (England) • When: 1497-1498 • Where: Coast of N. America & New Foundland • Why: Land for England & water route to India • Result: Claims land in North America
Samuel De Champlain Champlain (France) • When: 1605-1615 • Where: Explored North America • St. Lawrence River • Great Lakes • Result: French claims much of Canada (Quebec)
Hudson Henry Hudson (Dutch) • When & Where: • 1609 New York • 1610 Hudson Bay
Amerigo Vespucci • When: 1501 • Where: South America • Why: Search for new land/Explore S. America • Result: Made many writings about the new world and captured the imaginations of the European people • *North and South America named in his honor (by a German mapmaker)
Other notables • Juan Rodriguez- known for given the Spanish claim to the Pacific Coast of North America • Hernando de Soto- went looking for gold in Florida- ended up in Arkansas –first European to cross the Mississippian river