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Adolescence. Transition period – child to adult G. Stanley Hall – developmental psychologist Adolescence as storm and stress, new idea (1904) What is it to you? Storm and stress? Revelry?. Puberty. 11 y.o. girls/13 y.o. boys Primary sex characteristics

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  • Transition period – child to adult
  • G. Stanley Hall – developmental psychologist
    • Adolescence as storm and stress, new idea (1904)
  • What is it to you? Storm and stress? Revelry?
  • 11 y.o. girls/13 y.o. boys
  • Primary sex characteristics
    • External genitalia and reproductive organs develop drastically
  • Secondary sex characteristics
    • Non-reproductive traits (breasts, hips/deepening voice, pubic hair)
  • Growth spurts are regulated by hypothalamus, telling the pituitary to secrete growth hormones.
puberty landmarks
Puberty Landmarks
  • first period for girls (menarche)
  • first ejaculation by boys (spermarche).
  • Feelings associated?
physical development and self esteem in adolescence
Physical Development and self-esteem in Adolescence
  • Early developing boys tend to develop high self-esteem
  • Early developing girls, low self-esteem.
  • Why?
gender and adolescence
Gender and Adolescence
  • Girls often go through a "dumb period" at the onset of puberty
    • IQ drops temporarily and self-esteem plummets.
    • In extreme cases girls may begin to "starve away" puberty and become anorexic.
good news
Good News
  • During late adolescence people report relatively high self-esteem: they rebound from the middle school lows.
    • Focus also becomes less egocentric as formal operational thinking takes hold.
    • Connections?
    • Which did you prefer? Now or middle school?
family tensions
Family Tensions
  • Adolescence is marked by an increase in peer influence and a reduction in parental influence
  • Individuation: creating an independent identity in the world (Jung)
    • How does this explain relationships with parents?
cognitive development
Cognitive development
  • Teens become more formal operational in their thinking
  • Is it all a matter of maturation?
lawrence kohlberg s levels of moral development
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral development
  • Kohlberg agreed with Piaget, but went further in describing moral reasoning

Conventional : Early adolescence, rules are rules, right and wrong. What would your friends think.


Postconventional (formal op). Larger universal issues of morality and right and wrong, justice and fair play enter the process. What’s right?

moral questions
Moral questions
  • You go through the checkout at Harris Teeter and give a ten dollar bill and receive change for a 20?
  • Is cheating wrong?
  • Do you copy homework?
  • Do you ask for questions on a test?
  • Would you mark that you’d given money to church/charity to receive money back on your taxes?
kohlberg critics
Kohlberg Critics
  • There is a discrepancy between moral thought and action
cognitive dissonance: we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
    • Smoking and cancer
    • End of the world cult members
Social influence and expediency will change behavior that is reasoned to be moral.
  • Have you ever cheated because you saw others cheating?
  • Is cheating right? Why or why not?
  • Have you ever cheated?
cultural criticisms
Cultural Criticisms
  • postconventional reasoning appears mainly in
    • Educated
    • Western middle and upper class
    • Males
    • value individualism.
interdependent collectivist cultures
Interdependent/collectivist cultures
  • respect group norms more than western individualistic cultures and therefore are less likely to post-conventional moral reason.
    • Group cohesion more important than individual codes.
  • African, Asia, Middle East more interdependent in thinking.
moral development and gender
Moral Development, and Gender
  • while men tend to make judgments based on their view of justice, women tend to make decisions based on relationships.
  • Ex: Who chooses a movie? Who’s likely to cave first in arguments?
other kohlberg complaint haidt s social intuitionist
Other Kohlberg Complaint: Haidt’s Social Intuitionist
  • Are there some things that are viscerally disgusting, or innately immoral?
  • Do they require moral reasoning?
  • Examples?
morality and social influences
Morality and Social Influences
  • Doing the right thing dependent on social situations
    • Nazi concentration camp guards
stereotyping and the aggressive mustache
Stereotyping and the Aggressive Mustache
  • What ideas of self-concept are at play?
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy
erik erikson social development
Erik Erikson: Social Development
  • psychosocial task to complete at each level of development throughout our lifetimes.
  • If we do not achieve one level, it creates problems in our lives.
stage 1 trust vs mistrust
Stage 1: Trust vs Mistrust
stage 2 autonomy vs shame and doubt
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
stage 3 initiative vs guilt
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
stage 4 industry vs inferiority
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
stage 5 identity vs role confusion
Stage 5: Identity vs. role confusion
stage 7 generativity vs stagnation
Stage 7: Generativity vs. stagnation
stage 8 integrity vs despair
Stage 8: Integrity vs. despair
adolescent development erikson
Adolescent Development: Erikson
  • teens are developing a sense of identity
    • trying on a series of roles until they find one that fits.
    • What happens when the roles interact? Family dynamics?
    • They then can move onto forming close relationships.
gender bias in kohlberg
Gender Bias in Kohlberg
  • Gilligan complains that girls are more concerned with relationships and therefore develop identity through their relationships
marcia s levels of identity achievement
Marcia’s Levels of Identity Achievement
  • Extends Erikson’s work
    • identity determined by choices and commitments rather than social traits
  • Marcia believed that teens fall into four categories in their search for identity
marcia s stages of development
Marcia’s Stages of Development
  • Diffused: not really searching, living day to day, no direction.
  • Foreclosed: a little parent, unquestioning, never searched for personal identity.
  • Moratorium: actively searching and trying on new roles routinely.
  • Achieved: developed a separate and unique identity they feel comfortable with.
teens and sex
Teens and Sex
  • 80% of Americans will have sex before they leave adolescence.
  • 50% will have sex before leaving HS
  • 50% of teen sex acts occur without condoms.
  • Pregnancy is high because of ignorance, guilt, alcohol and mass media’s influence.
teen groups
Teen groups
  • Boys tend to have larger and more fluid groups than girls.
    • Also more openly competitive…lots of joining….
  • Girls spend more time with their friends than boys, closer relationship, smaller groups.
    • More intimate in relationships. More likely to pray
gender differences
Gender Differences
  • In all stages, women prefer social groups to individualism.
  • Women who are close to their mothers are more likely to have very close girl-friends.
  • More likely:
    • To stare at people when angry, criticize,
    • Interrupt others in conversation, particularly women
    • Perceive friendliness as a “come on.”
  • Stages of adulthood are less clear cut than with children and adolescence.
  • Development have more to do with the social clock
    • which varies from culture to culture:
      • people marry later now than before
  • Events (often random) drive developmental change
    • marriage, children, job changes, deaths, “empty nest”, etc.
early adulthood marriage
Early Adulthood: Marriage
  • 90% of the world’s adult population lives in pair bonds.
    • As many as 1/2 of Western marriages end in divorce, although most remarry.
  • Children lower the level of marital satisfaction, particularly in working women.
  • The most successful marriages are those where positive interactions outnumber negative 5 to 1.
  • Love is most enduring when two have similar interests and values, and share emotional intimacy (self-disclosure).
    • Called companionate love.
  • Life partners come from random events and mere-exposure effect
    • which is why id. twins often aren’t attracted to their twin’s spouse.
  • People who live together before marriage are more likely to divorce.
adulthood jobs
Adulthood: Jobs
  • Having a satisfying job is a predictor of feelings of life satisfaction (integrity)
    • Most people do not work in jobs they choose in college
  • Work for feeling of competence and satisfaction, not money.
  • Stay at homes and working women have equal levels of life satisfaction.
adulthood middle age
Adulthood: Middle Age
  • Daniel Levinson promoted the theory that life is marked by periods of upheaval between stages, hence the mid-life crisis.
  • no link between middle age and crisis feelings or behavior, however it is a “transitional period”
    • in which adjustments must take place.
    • Divorce occurs more often in early twenties.
    • Suicide occurs more among the very young and very old.
empty nest syndrome
Empty Nest Syndrome
  • Most adults find the empty nest to be a happy nest
    • Most experience a post-launch honeymoon and greater enjoyment of the marriage.
  • The same is basically true of menopause.
    • Although young women think it’ll be a problem.
aging and senses
Aging and Senses
  • The mid-twenties mark the height of most sensory abilities and a decline from then on.
  • Early twenties marks high point of muscular strength
  • Hearing, eyesight, smell, cardiovascular strength, muscle tone all begin to decline.
aging and health
Aging and Health
  • Immune system weakens making you more susceptible to big illnesses
  • Dementia can occur from strokes, tumors and alcoholism
    • destroying brain tissue, affecting reasoning, memory, motor skills.
aging and health1
Aging and Health
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: not normal aging, actual brain destruction.
    • Effects the neurons that produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
    • First memory, then reasoning and language.
    • Person become emotionally flat, disoriented, incontinent, then vacant.
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aging and cognition
Aging and Cognition
  • Memory is affected.
  • Recognition remains good
  • Recall is slower as neural speed decreases.
  • Speed slows, but they get to answer.
aging and cognition1
Aging and cognition
  • Do better with crystallized intelligence (facts, dates)
  • Slower with fluid intelligence (skills, problem-solving, reasoning abstractly WITH SPEED; formal operationally).
  • Do better with meaningful material because of complex schematic connections, even though they have less brain cells.
types of studies
Types of studies
  • Flynn effect: longitudinal studies compare people to themselves
    • cross sectional are limited in that they compare people raised at different times, when education was worse.
aging and happiness
Aging and Happiness
  • Happiness tends to stay constant over time, old people are no less happy than others.
  • The older you get:
    • Less highs and lows you have.
    • Moods last longer, but have less peaks and valleys.
    • Less of those annoying sex hormones.

Traits in Development

  • Genetic personality traits remain fairly constant throughout the lifetime.
  • Traits become more consistent the older you get, solidifying during identity development.
  • Traits are more likely to be malleable when you are very young.
testosterone and estrogen
Testosterone and Estrogen
  • Males testosterone levels drop decreasing:
    • Sex drive, energy and encouraging belly fat. Also associated with depression.
  • Female loss of estrogen associated with mustaches
    • (male secondary sex characteristics and loss of sex abilities (lubrication and the like.)
  • Basic rule: Use it or lose it. People who remain active and involved lose little of their cognitive abilities, if illness does not affect them.
things old people worry about
Things old people worry about
  • Memory loss.
  • Fear of experiencing pain.
  • Long term care costs.
  • Being unproductive.
  • Loss of loved ones.
  • Loneliness
  • Crime
  • Ironically, not afraid of death
death and dying
Death and Dying
  • Most famous authority of: Elizabeth Kubler-Ross: stages of death and dying:
  • Denial: It won’t really happen”
  • Anger: Why Me!!?
  • Bargaining: “I promise I’ll go to church”
  • Depression: sadness
  • Acceptance: a peaceful understanding.
on death and dying
On death and dying
  • Particularly tough if unexpected by the social clock.
  • Death of a spouse leads to intense loneliness-five times more often to women.
  • Men do not die usually immediately after their spouse, women do better though because of natural social connections. Men are more likely to suffer an illness after lose of loved one though.
  • Movement toward Hospice care: places where terminally ill people go to die in a non-hospital environment, with support and family.