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Imagery (Mental Practice). Imagery helpful for improving memory and attentional skills Cognitive rehearsal of a physical skill in the absence of overt physical movement Visualization - too simplistic Focuses more on overall performance, more multi-sensory. Uses of Imagery. Potential uses?

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Imagery (Mental Practice)

  • Imagery helpful for improving memory and attentional skills

  • Cognitive rehearsal of a physical skill in the absence of overt physical movement

  • Visualization - too simplistic

  • Focuses more on overall performance, more multi-sensory

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Uses of Imagery

  • Potential uses?

  • No practice vs. mental practice vs. physical practice

  • Feltz & Landers (1994) meta-analysis

    • found greater effect sizes for imagery tasks with higher cognitive demands

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Internal vs. External Imagery

  • Imagery example

  • Internal vs. External

  • Which is preferable?

  • Internal = more kinesthetic information

  • External = more visual

  • Preference of elite athletes?

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Why does mental practice work?

  • Neuromuscular Theory

    • Develop a strong memory representation of the task

    • Strengthen neural pathways

    • better for lower skilled--more pathways to strengthen

    • Not as effective for more complex tasks

    • Suinn study

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Why does mental practice work?

  • Cognitive/Symbolic Learning

    • Know “what to do”

    • Code cognitive aspects of movement patterns

    • Use imagery to produce cues that would be seen in actual practice or competition

    • More efficient with more elite performers--why?

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Mastery vs. Coping Imagery

  • Mastery = images of success, demonstrating competence

  • Coping = images of failure, stress, circumstances not ideal, etc.

  • Why would that be important?

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Implications for Interventions

  • Imagery is a skill; must be practiced

  • Inclusion of sensory information

  • Use of relaxation prior to imagery

  • May be used to enhance memory of skill performance

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Psychology of Injury

October 22, 2002

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  • 3-5 million (1993) to 17 million per year (1998)

  • Medical advances, but not psychological advances

  • Larson (1996) study of 482 AT’s

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Importance of Injury

  • Psychological variables that may influence injury

  • Potential role of sport psychology to facilitate recovery

  • Certain factors may be instrumental in prediction of injury--> prolong rehab-->subsequent performance/emotional problems

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  • Stress history contributes to the stress response directly

  • Personality variables & coping may directly affect, or affect through the stress response

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Stress Response

  • Mechanisms that increase during stress

  • High stress, personality traits that exacerbate stress response or few coping resources will have a different appraisal--> greater risk for injury

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Personality Variables Related to Onset of Injury

  • Risk-taking

  • Anxiety

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Situational Variables Related to Onset of Injury

  • Major & Minor Life Stresses (Stress History)

  • Coping Resources

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Effects of Injury

  • Loss of social support system (sports in particular?)

  • Uncertainty about immediate future (circular relationship)

  • Loss of confidence (circular again)

  • Athletic identity (at high risk at retirement) if involuntary, higher risk. Thanatology

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Psychological Response to Injury & Rehabilitation

  • Wiese-Bjornstal et al. (1998): Integrated model of psychological response to teh sport injury and rehabilitation process

  • Personal factors, Situational factors affect cognitive appraisal, behavioral response, and emotional response, which affect recovery outcomes

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Integrated Model

  • Personal factors

  • Situational factors

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Integrated Model

  • Core of model = arrows

  • Dynamic process

  • Cognitive appraisal should affect emotional responses, which will influence behavioral response

  • Why are there arrows going in a counterclockwise direction?