Language and Imagery Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Recognition and Imagination • Recognition • Mental images of prior events • Imagination • Mental images of future events Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Image Recognition • Picture your kitchen as you left it this morning. What do you remember about how it looked? • What is your favorite candy? How does it taste? • Think of the last time you were out in a gusty wind. What did it feel like? Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Imagination • Imagine anything • Can you… • Smell what you are imagining? • Taste what you are imagining? • Feel what you are imagining? • Hear what you are imagining? • See what you are imagining? Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Dual Coding Theory • Mark Paivio and Allan Sadoski • DCT: “cognition in reading and writing consists of the activity of two separate coding systems of mental representation for dealing with nonverbal objects and events” • Mental representations: internal forms of information used in memory • Coding: the ways the external world is captured in internal forms • Processing: the activation of representation within and between systems Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Sensory Input Haptic input (touch) Auditory input (sounds) Gustatory input (taste) Olfactory input (smells) Visual input (sights) Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
DCT Vocabulary • Logogens– verbal representations, verbal encodings, mental language, and inner speech • Imagens – nonverbal representations, nonverbal encodings, mental images, or imagery • Coding – ways the external world is captured in internal forms • Synchronous • Asynchronous Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Simplified Model of DCT Nonverbal Stimuli Verbal Stimuli Sensory Systems Nonverbal System Verbal System Logogens Imagens Referential Connections Associative Connections Associative Connections Nonverbal responses Verbal responses Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Visual Model of DCT Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Visualization Exercise #1 • Take out a blank piece of paper and something to write with • Read the description on the following page • After the description is removed, draw the mental image you developed from reading the description Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
When I opened the door on the left, I got a little bit scared because there was one of those adjustable desk lamps with a long neck that made it look like a bird about to attack. I put the light on though, and the room was a huge bore. The ceiling slanted on the far side, and there was only one window. It was okay if you wanted to keep somebody as the Prisoner of Zenda, but it looked like a rotten place to work. All it had was this big desk made by taking a thick piece of plywood and laying it over two wooden horses, and a bookcase with blueprints and stuff in it, and a big oscilloscope, with its guts hanging out, in the corner. There were three old TV sets too, but they looked like they didn’t even work. Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Your picture • How close was your picture to the description in the passage? • What skills did you use in that activity? Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Visualization Exercise #2 • Visualize the following: Alex and Ali ran down the long school hallway and outdoors to the swings Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Alex and Ali • Are Alex and Ali kids or adults • What gender is Alex? • What gender is Ali? • What nationality is Ali? • Can you assume they swing? Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Verbal to Nonverbal • Both of the previous activities involved turning verbal representations into nonverbal representations • What was the difference between them? Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Visualization Exercise #3 • You will see an object on the following slide for a brief period of time • Look at the object and then write down what you remember about it Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Nonverbal to Verbal • What do you remember about the object on the previous slide? • Other than turning a nonverbal representation into a verbal representation, how was exercise #3 different than exercises #1 and #2? Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
One more time… • Look at the object on the next page • After the object is removed from the screen, write down what you can about it Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Nonverbal to Verbal • What words did you write down? • What is required to do well on these tasks? Ann Morrison, Ph.D.
Last Note • Text and language imagery are only a couple of the elements of skilled comprehension • Other important elements: • Background knowledge • Motivation and engagement • Access to language and text • Decoding fluency • Vocabulary knowledge • Knowledge of text structure Ann Morrison, Ph.D.