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Introducion to Chemistry. What is chemistry? the study of the properties and behavior of matter physical and chemical properties of matter how different forms of matter change and interact the energy associated with chemical and physical changes. What is matter?

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introducion to chemistry
Introducion to Chemistry
  • What is chemistry?
  • the study of the properties and behavior of matter
  • physical and chemical properties of matter
  • how different forms of matter change and interact
  • the energy associated with chemical and physical changes
slide2
What is matter?
  • matter is anything that has mass and takes up space
  • over 100 elements are the building blocks of matter
  • an atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
  • atoms combine to form molecules
why is it important to study chemistry
Why is it important to study chemistry?
  • Chemistry acts as a sort of backbone for all of the other sciences. Advances in chemistry contribute to virtually every aspect of our everyday lives, including, but not limited to:
why is it important to study chemistry4
Why is it important to study chemistry?
  • the development of new medicines
  • conservation of natural resources
  • clean-up of the environment
  • food production
  • nutrition
  • manufacture of goods….EVERYTHING
scientific world view
Scientific World View
  • Some tenets of the scientific world view include:
  • the world is understandable
  • scientific ideas are subject to change
  • scientific knowledge is durable
  • science cannot provide complete answers to all questions
scientific inquiry
Scientific Inquiry
  • All science demands evidence, but scientists differ in the type of evidence they rely on and how they go about answering questions.
  • qualitative observations vs. quantitative measurements
  • natural settings vs. controlled laboratory experiments
  • passive vs. active
  • Despite differences in technique and approach, there is general agreement about what constitutes an investigation that is scientifically valid.
slide7

Questioning

Proposing ideas

Designing experiments

Gathering data

Processing data

Interpreting data

experimental design
Experimental Design
  • Laboratories allow scientists to control their experiments so observations are reproducible.
  • EXAMPLE: Francisco Redi’s Maggot Farm-1600s
francisco redi s maggot farm 17th century
Francisco Redi’s Maggot Farm—17th Century
  • In the 1600’s it was widely believed that living things could arise spontaneously from non-living, dead, or waste materials (this is called spontaneous generation), because people saw such materials "generate" living things such as mold or maggots.  
francisco redi s maggot farm 17th century10
Francisco Redi’s Maggot Farm—17th Century
  • In 1688, Italian naturalist Francisco Redi set out to test the idea with decaying meat in two containers:  one open to the air, the other sealed.  The open container meat eventually became infested with maggots. 
francisco redi s maggot farm 17th century12
Francisco Redi’s Maggot Farm—17th Century
  • And when critics insisted that it was the sealing of the second container that kept spontaneous generation from occurring, Redi did the test with an open container and one covered with cheesecloth, through which air could circulate, and the cheesecloth-covered sample produced no maggots. 
francisco redi s maggot farm 17th century13
Francisco Redi’s Maggot Farm—17th Century

Source: http://faculty.fmcc.suny.edu/mcdarby/Animals&PlantsBook/History/03-Explaining-Life-Science.htm

variables good experiments are controlled
Variables- Good experiments are controlled.
  • 1. Manipulated variable (independent variable) –
  • Redi’s experiment –
variables good experiments are controlled15
Variables- Good experiments are controlled.
  • 2. Responding variable (dependent variable)-
  • Redi’s experiment-
variables good experiments are controlled16
Variables- Good experiments are controlled.
  • 3. Controlled variables (constants)-
  • Redi’s Experiment-
slide17
Problem statement: What is the effect of increasing the frequency of teeth brushing on the amount of plaque build-up?
  • MV:
  • RV:
  • CV’s:
metrics and measurement
Metrics and Measurement
  • Shift to the Student notes for
  • “METRICS AND MEASUREMENT”