The Politics of War Chapter 11 Section 2 Page 346
Britain Remains Neutral • Britain was no longer dependent upon Southern cotton. • Huge supply pre war • New sources in Egypt & India • When their wheat crop failed they turned to import corn & wheat from the North. • Britain decided to remain neutral for the time being.
Trent Affair • Confederate government sent two diplomats, James Madison and John Slidell to Europe to gain support from Britain & France. • Captain Charles Wilkes stopped the Trent & arrested the two men. • Britain threatened war against the Union if the men were not released. • Lincoln freed the men & claimed he had no knowledge of the act. Britain relieved to stay out of the conflict.
Lincoln’s View of Slavery • Lincoln disliked slavery, but didn’t believe he had the authority to end slavery. • Lincoln did find a way to end slavery. • B/C slave labor built forts and grew food in the South, Lincoln believed he could emancipate these slaves just as he ordered his army to take supplies from the South. • Emancipation offered a strategic benefit, emancipation discouraged Britain to support the South.
Emancipation Proclamation • January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. • Did not free any slaves immediately b/c it applied only to areas behind Confederate lines. • Didn’t apply to Southern territory already occupied by Union troops.
Reactions to the Proclamation • Symbolic importance • Union • Gave the war a high moral purpose • Free blacks were able to enlist in the army • Democrats claimed that it would only prolong the war by antagonizing the South • Union soldiers accepted it grudgingly
Reactions to the Proclamation • Confederate • Outraged • More determined to preserve their way of life • Compromise no longer an option
Dealing with Dissent • Lincoln dealt forcibly w/ disloyalty. • Suspended the writ of habeas corpus, which required people arrested to be charged w/ a crime. • More than 13,000 suspected Confederate sympathizes were arrested. • Lincoln also seized telegraph offices • Justice Roger Taney declared that Lincoln had gone beyond his constitutional powers, Lincoln ignored his ruling. • Northern Democrats who advocated peace w/ the South called Copperheads. • Jefferson Davis followed Lincoln’s lead suspending the writ of habeas corpus in the South. • Expanded the president’s wartime actions
Conscritpion • Both armies originally relied on volunteers • Heavy casualties led to Conscription, a draft that forced men to serve in the army. • Confederate draft law 1862 • All able-bodied white men ages 18-35 • Wealthy were allowed to hire replacements • Also exempted planters who owned 20+ slaves • 90% of eligible men served • Union draft law • White men b/w 20-45 yrs old for 3 yrs • Allowed draftees to hire substitutes • Could pay $300 to avoid the draft • 92% the 2 million who served were volunteers
Draft Riots • 1863 New York City was a ticking bomb. • Poor people were crowded into slums, crime & disease were rampant, & poverty was present. • The poor were angry that they were forced to fight in a war that they didn’t believe in. • Immigrants were fearful that free blacks would take jobs. • When officials drew names for the draft, men gathered in angry mobs. • July 13-16 mobs rampaged the city attacking wealthy, abolitionists, & blacks. • 100+ were killed
Answer the following questions • What economic changes made Britain less dependent on Southern cotton? • What happened in the Trent incident? • How did the Emancipation Proclamation change the course of the Civil War? • What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? • What was the reaction to the Emancipation Proclamation? • How did Lincoln and Davis deal with political dissent? • How did people on both sided react to draft laws? • What caused the riot in New York City in 1863?