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Cognitive Development, College Students, & Information Literacy

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  1. Cognitive Development, College Students,& Information Literacy Meghan Sitar Instruction and Outreach Librarian University of Texas Libraries msitar@austin.utexas.edu www.lib.utexas.edu/services/instruction/meghan.html

  2. Goals for Today • Examine models of intellectual and cognitive development in college students • Understand which stages most college students are at when we’re working with them as librarians • Discuss the challenges presented by the ACRL IL Standards and possible solutions for improving our instruction to address these challenges

  3. Most Useful References • Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive development: The missing link in teaching information literacy skills. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.   • Jackson, R. (2008). Information literacy and its relationship to cognitive development and reflective judgment. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008(114), 47-61.  

  4. Perry’s Scheme (1970) • Interviewed mostly male students at Harvard in the 60s • 9 stages of intellectualdevelopment that occur in undergraduates

  5. Perry’s Scheme (1970) William G. Perry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_G._Perry.

  6. Perry’s Scheme (1970) William G. Perry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_G._Perry.

  7. Perry’s Scheme (1970) Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive Development. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32. Rapaport, W.J. William Perry’s Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development. http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~rapaport/perry.positions.html.

  8. Perry’s Scheme (1970) Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive Development. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32. Rapaport, W.J. William Perry’s Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development. http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~rapaport/perry.positions.html.

  9. King and Kitchener (1994) • More diverse sample • 20-year longitudinal study • Based their measures on the solution of ill-structured problems • 7 stages of reflective judgment, similar to Perry’s Scheme

  10. King and Kitchener (1994) King, P.M. & Kitchener, K.S. (1994). Developing Reflective Judgment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers

  11. King and Kitchener (1994) King, P.M. & Kitchener, K.S. (1994). Developing Reflective Judgment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers

  12. King and Kitchener (1994) King, P.M. & Kitchener, K.S. (1994). Developing Reflective Judgment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers

  13. Other notable models Belenky et al, Women’s Ways of Knowing (1986) • Silence • Connected knowing, stepping into what one is trying to know rather than stepping back Baxter Magolda, Knowing and Reasoning in College(1992) • Epistemological reflection • Role of gender • Intersections of intellectual, identity, and relational development in young adulthood Magolda, M. B. B. (2006). Intellectual development in the college years. Change, 38(3), 50-54.

  14. Whitmire, E. (2003). Epistemological beliefs and the information-seeking behavior of undergraduates. Library & Information Science Research, 25(2), 127-142.

  15. Perry’s students at Harvard • Most students ended freshman year at Position 3 or 4. Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive development: The missing link in teaching information literacy skills. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.   Jackson, R. (2008). Information literacy and its relationship to cognitive development and reflective judgment. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008(114), 47-61.

  16. Perry’s students at Harvard • Most students at the end of their undergraduate career had attained at leastPosition 6. Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive development: The missing link in teaching information literacy skills. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.   Jackson, R. (2008). Information literacy and its relationship to cognitive development and reflective judgment. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008(114), 47-61.

  17. Perry’s students at Harvard • Most of the students did not get beyond Position 5. • None reached Position 9. Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive development: The missing link in teaching information literacy skills. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.   Jackson, R. (2008). Information literacy and its relationship to cognitive development and reflective judgment. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008(114), 47-61.

  18. Other researchers using Perry’s Scheme found that students at other institutions: • Reached Position 2 or 3 at the end of their freshman year • May reach Position 4 or 5 by the timethey graduate Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive development: The missing link in teaching information literacy skills. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.   Jackson, R. (2008). Information literacy and its relationship to cognitive development and reflective judgment. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008(114), 47-61.

  19. King and Kitchener "the functional level…is betweenStages 3 and 4 [and] they may be able to comprehend Stage 5 concepts."' Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive development: The missing link in teaching information literacy skills. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.   Jackson, R. (2008). Information literacy and its relationship to cognitive development and reflective judgment. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008(114), 47-61.

  20. Keep in mind… • Don’t make assumptions based on a student’s year in school. • Students can be at different stages in different subject areas. • There’s an emotional component -- stress, anxiety, and confusion can cause regression.

  21. What are the ACRL IL Standards asking undergraduates to accomplish developmentally? Standard One, outcome 1.f. “the information literate student recognizes that existing information can be combined with original thought, experimentation, and/or analysis to produce new information.” Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive Development. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.

  22. What are the ACRL IL Standards asking undergraduates to accomplish developmentally? Standard Two, outcome 5.a. “the information literate student selects among various technologies the most appropriate one for the task of extractingthe needed information" Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive Development. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.

  23. What are the ACRL IL Standards asking undergraduates to accomplish developmentally? Standard Three “The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system.” Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive Development. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.

  24. Possible Solutions - Jackson • Lower undergraduate levels • Standard One, Outcome1a • Identification of a topic is doable • Identification of what type of information they might need would push development • Standard One, Performance Indicator 2 • Outcomes focusing on concrete information would be doable Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive development: The missing link in teaching information literacy skills. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.   Jackson, R. (2008). Information literacy and its relationship to cognitive development and reflective judgment. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008(114), 47-61.

  25. Possible Solutions - Mellon Dualistic: only basic strategies for solvinginformation problems should be taught, though students should be made aware of more complex information-seekingprocesses, and they should encouraged toask questions of librarians. Mellon, C. A. “Information Problem-Solving: A Developmental Approach to Library Instruction,” In C. Oberman and K. Strauch (eds.), Theories of Bibliographic Education: Designs for Teaching. New York: Bowker, 1981.

  26. Possible Solutions - Mellon Multiplistic : Mention that search strategy is a very individual thing and that the aim of a library instruction is to produce an independent library user who hasdeveloped a successful problem-solving search strategy. Mellon, C. A. “Information Problem-Solving: A Developmental Approach to Library Instruction,” In C. Oberman and K. Strauch (eds.), Theories of Bibliographic Education: Designs for Teaching. New York: Bowker, 1981.

  27. Possible Solutions - Mellon Relativistic: Librarians are free to discuss all the complexities of information retrieval and evaluation and analysis of sources. Mellon, C. A. “Information Problem-Solving: A Developmental Approach to Library Instruction,” In C. Oberman and K. Strauch (eds.), Theories of Bibliographic Education: Designs for Teaching. New York: Bowker, 1981.

  28. Possible Solutions - Fields • Scaffolding – design prompts and questions that help students build on exiting knowledge • Encourage students to move beyond their current level without skipping levels Fields, A. (2006). Ill-structured problems and the reference consultation: The librarian's role in developing student expertise,” Reference Services Review 34(3), 405-20.

  29. Possible Solutions - Jackson • Make sure faculty recognize the impact of their authority on student research • “Find a journal article in a journal like X” • “Don’t use the Web” • Work with faculty to establish the librarian as an authority with whom students may interact Jackson, R. (2007). Cognitive development: The missing link in teaching information literacy skills. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(4), 28-32.   Jackson, R. (2008). Information literacy and its relationship to cognitive development and reflective judgment. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008(114), 47-61.

  30. Possible Solutions - King & Kitchener “If students perceive disrespect or lack ofemotional support, they may be less willing to . . . take the intellectualand personal risks required for development.” King, P.M. & Kitchener, K.S. (1994). Developing Reflective Judgment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers

  31. Other solutions?

  32. Questions?