Criminal Violence: Patterns, Causes, and Prevention Riedel and Welsh, Ch. 2 “Measures of Violence”. OUTLINE. Why are measures of crime important? Crime Rates v. Amounts Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).
(a) public policy
(b) research about violence (e.g., patterns, trends, locations).
Crime Rate = (Amount / Population at Risk) × 100,000
Example: similar amounts of murder, different populations.
There were 510 murders in Chicago and 523 murders in New York in 2008. Which city had the greatest risk of murder victimization?
If we “plug in” the numbers, we have the following 2008 murder victimization rates:
(New York) 6.26 = (523/ 8,345,075) * 100,000
(Chicago) 18.02= (510/ 2,829,7304) * 100,000
Persons living in Chicago have a risk of being murdered that is almost 3 times higher than the risk for people living in NY.
While the amount of murders for the two cities is similar, the rate of victimization is dramatically different.
Example: similar populations, different rates:
There were 23 murders in Austin, Texas, and 234 murders in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2008. Which city had the greatest risk of murder victimization, even though they had similar populations?
If we “plug in” the numbers, we have the following 2008
murder victimization rates:
(Austin) 3.05 = (23/ 753,535) * 100,000
(Baltimore) 36.87= (234/634,549) * 100,000
While the populations for the two cities are similar, the murder victimization rates are dramatically different.
How are Incidents Collected?
What is Collected?
In addition to estimating the number of victimizations, the NCVS gathers details on each incident: