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Alternative road materials and design concepts – Finnish experiences. Leena Korkiala-Tanttu Professor of Practice Geotechnical Engineering Aalto University. Contents of the presentation. Finnish design and construction standards and guidelines in 2013

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alternative road materials and design concepts finnish experiences

Alternative road materials and design concepts – Finnish experiences

Leena Korkiala-Tanttu

Professor of Practice Geotechnical Engineering

Aalto University

contents of the presentation
Contents of the presentation

Finnish design and construction standards and guidelines in 2013

Alternative (new?) materials or methods used in pavement/road layers

Design methods for alternative pavement structures

different standards to follow
Differentstandards to follow

Design standards – Eurocode system for supporting structures and geotechnics of infra structures, not for pavement design

The execution and product standards will be taken into use after their approval process

Also the ground investigations, surveys and measurements are included in the standards

No standard so far for the earth construction works – discussion to start preparation

finnish design and construction standards and guidelines
Finnish design and constructionstandards and guidelines

Eurocode design system is mandatory in building construction. Partly also in infra sector.

Allbuilidingmaterials and products, whichhaveharmonizedproductstandardmustbeCE-markedafter 1.7.2013!

Mostof the infraconstructionproducts haveproductstandard(aggregates, drainagesystems, piles, asphalt,…)

Voluntarystandardapproval and othermethodsfromoldersystemcanbeusedotherwise

national applications of the general quality requirements for infra construction
National applications of the general qualityrequirements for infraconstruction

InfraRYL2006 Part 1- Roads, railways and fields

InfraRYL2006 Part 2 – Systems (e.g. water and sewage)

InfraRYL2006 Part 3 – Bridges and structural parts

InfraRYL2006, Part 4 - Sport and recreationareas

Printed and eletronicalversions

Only in Finnish

More information

standards of asphalt works in finnish
Standards of asphaltworks in Finnish

SFS-handbook165, includesallstandardsdealing with asphalt and pavingworks

Parts 1 and 2 testingmethods

Part 3 materialrequirements

The asphaltnorms 2008 deliveredby PANK includesFinnishapplications


alternative materials and new solutions for road pavement structures
Alternativematerials and new solutions for road / pavementstructures

Need to have competence qualification systems – for example geotechnical designers of infrastructures

New updated guidelines and examples calculations are needed

Need to update design programs

The design costs will be bigger at least in bridge and geotechnical design

The price of the ground survey will increase

Effects to the illumination of the streets and roads (energy requirements)

CE- markings?

the utilisation of alternative materials in pavements
The utilisation of alternativematerials in pavements

Paving /wearingcourse






Unboundgranularmaterialsorstabilizedlayersincludingtreatment of the subgrade

Verylow-qualitymaterials in otherparts (slopes, noisebarriers, otherfillings)

alternative materials used in pavement road layers
Alternativematerialsused in pavement (road) layers

Metallurgicalslags (e.g. Blastfurnaceslag =BFS)

Waste fromconstructionindustry and projects

Ashesfromenergyindustry and endproduct of desulphuration

Processwastefromforest and pulpindustry

Usedtyres and foamedglas

Side products (dressingsands and others) fromore and extractiveindustry (the locationof the mines)

Surplus of the infraconstruction

Used (recycled) asphalt

recycled asphalt

Finland is pioneer in the recycling of asphalt

Besidesrecycling in paving, crushedasphaltcanbeused:

  • in the baselayer of the low-volumeroads
  • In temporarypavings
  • Yards and storagefields
  • As one component of stabilisationbinders
  • In the edgeareas of embankments
metallurgical slags

Produced in big amounts, locationsproblem

Trade marks: BFS and OKTO-products

Someslagswillbindbythemselves, yettheycanbeexcavatedfrom the pavement

Someslagsareunderwastelegistation (heavy metals)

BFS and OKTO: Goodbearingcapacity, evenbetterthanclassiccrushedmaterials

BFS and OKTO: canbeusedalso an isolatingorlightweightmaterial

crushed concrete

Best quality for the concreteindustryby-product


Crushedconcretewaste: steelsareremovedcarefully

Properties and qualificationsystem

Bindsitself, canbeexcavated

suitability for road structures
Suitability for roadstructures


Goodexperienceseven for long-termstructures (morethan 17 years) reported in new Masterthesis

Materialcanachieve in general higherstiffnessthan for crushedmaterials, long-termperformance is good




Flyash (left) is the most common ash


Coarserashes -> sand

Heavy metalcontentmightbe a problem


Frost susceptibility


Bindsitself (flyash) is usedalso in bindermixtures

stabilisation of pavement layers base subbase
Stabilisation of pavementlayers (base + subbase)

Finnishresearchprojectended 2007

Laboratorystudies and teststructures

Finalreport in Finnish

Layerstabilisation is notwidelyused

in 2012, becausegovernment is not

investing for roadmaintenance

Full-depthreclamation > 1 Mm2/year

stabilisation of pavement layers methods
Stabilisation of pavementlayersmethods

Stabilisation with foamedbitumen

Stabilisation with bitumen emulsion


Compositestabilisation (bitumen + cement)

Stabilisation with blastfurnaceslag BFS (mightincludeactivator = cement)

Stabilisation with cement

For existingstructures:

  • Premilling (esijyrsintä)
  • Milling with stabilisation
  • Full-depthReclamation(sekoitusjyrsintä)
stabilized layers requirements and material properties 1
Stabilizedlayers: requirements and materialproperties 1

InfraRYL2006, part 1


Bearingcapacity, in general betterthan for unbound:

  • Bitumenstabilisation: moreflexiblethanothers
  • Cementstabilisation: quickhardening, verystiff
  • BFS: slowhardening, relativelystiff


  • Bitumenstabilisation: optimisation of amount (hotweather-> weak, cold -> resistanceagainstwaterwillbeweak)
  • Compositestabilisation: optimum
  • BFS: slowhardening, self-rehealing
stabilized layers m aterial properties 2
Stabilizedlayers, materialproperties 2

Betterfrostsusceptibility, doesnotcorrect the subgradefrostheave, evens the deformations

A properdrainage is needed

For the aggregategrainsizedistribution is important

Adding of new aggregatematerial to oldstructures

For rehabilitationcases: stabilizationcanbedonelanebylane, disturbstrafficmuchlessthanothermethods

Finnradoesnotallow to usecementstabilisation


pavement structure design components
Pavementstructure design components

Service life of the structure

Life cyclecosts

Selection of the structure

finnish design practice
Finnish design practice

Settlementsarecalculated,ifneededactionsareused (groundimprovements,…)

Frost design -> allowablefrostheave - > the thickness of the layers

Fatigue design bases on bearingcapacity:Tabulatedvalues for the classicsolutions, no values for alternativematerials

Deformationsarenotcalculated: problemsusually with thinpavementsorheavilyloadedfields


CE-marking is needed after 1.7.2013

New standardisation -> need for new guidelines

The use of alternative materials in general is increasing

Good solution is to combine alternative materials together with reinforcement

The readily calculated structures can not properly take into account alternative or lightweight materials or structures including reinforcements


Thank your for

your attention!