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Presentation Plan • Educational System • 2. The Principles of the Turkish National Education • 3. Goals of Turkish National Education • 4. Academic Calender • 5. Distribution of Schools
TheTurkish Education System was built in accordance with the Atatürk's Reforms after the Turkish War of Independence. It is a state supervised system which was designed to create a skillful manpower for the social and economic process of the country.
Pre-primary Education • Pre-primary education encompasses training for those who have not as yet arrived at compulsory school age(6) and is optional
Primary education • The eight year primary education is compulsory for every child as soon as they reach the age of six. • Duration : 8 years (grades 1 to 8) • School Age Average : 6 to 14 • Compulsory Subjects: Turkish, mathematics, science, social studies, religious instruction, art, music and physical education.
Secondary School Education • Students who successfully complete primary school can continue their studies Secondary education comprises 4 years schooling in high schools and vocational and technical schools • Duration : Four years (grades 9 to 12) • Compulsory Subjects : Turkish language and literature, psychology, logic and sociology, history, geography, mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry, foreign language, religious education and physical training
1.General Secondary Schools They give schooling to children in the 15-18 age group for a 4-year period after primary school.They encompass the Anatolian high schools, Science high schools, Teachers' high schools, Evening high schools and Private high schools.
2. Anatolian high schoolsandScience high schools These were established for the purpose of teaching students at least one foreign language, which they can utilize to further their education in the best possible manner. The educational period inclusive of secondary schooling covers 4 years.
3. Technical and Vocational • high schools • These give the necessary training to enter the business and professional world and also prepare students for higher learning • They are divided into 4 main groups as follows: • Male Technical Educational Schools • Girls' Technical Educational Schools • Trade and Tourism Training Schools • Theological Schools
Non-formal education covers all other educational provision sponsored by the Ministry that occurs outside formal education • Informal education has two basic sections, general and vocational. • The informal training organizations consist of the following: • Practical Art Schools for Girls • Industrial Trade Institutes • Technical Training Centres for Adults • Public Training Centres • Apprenticeship Training Centres • Special Courses • Practical trade Schools • Adult Technical Training centers
2. The Principles of the Turkish National Education The Followings are the constitutional principles underlining the Turkish Educational System: --- No one shall be deprived of the right of learning education. Further-more, primary education is compulsory and free in state schools. (Right to education) --- Except in specially licensed institutions Turkish must be taught as the mother tongue --- Universality and equality, --- Freedom of choice --- Quality of opportunity --- Education for all throughout life --- Building of democracy --- Scientific approach --- Co-education --- School parent cooperation
3.Goals of Turkish National Education --- To achieve 100 percent participation rate in elementary education --- To raise the rate of literacy of the society which has already reached 85 %. --- To emphasize technical and vocational education. --- To take the necessary measures to raise the quality of national education ----To expand the provision of pre-school education so as to meet fully the demand for it
4.Academic Calender The academic year generally begins in late September or early October and extends through to May or early June, with some variations between urban and rural areas. The school day comprised of a morning and an afternoon session except in overcrowded schools, where a split session may be required. Schools are in session for five days a week. There is also a two week winter break in February. Universities and colleges usually organize the academic year into two semesters, the first extending from October to January, the second from February/March to June/July.
5.Distribution of Schools : Special Training Institutions These schools were established for the purpose of training those mentally or physically handicapped and also those of high intelligence to enable them to become useful members of the community and attain a profession. Education is free in these schools which provide day classes and board and lodgings *** Schools for the Blind *** Schools for the Deaf *** School for the Orthopedically Handicapped *** School for Retarded Children *** Schools for Retarded Children Who Can Be Trained *** Special Training Classes
Private Schools Many private schools, universities and institutes of higher education are being established, offering excellent standards and facilities with students’ financial supports.
Higher Education After the national university entrance examination ÖSS (Turkish: Öğrenci Seçme Sınavı) organized by ÖSYM, if they succeed, students continue with their studies at a university. Universities provide either two or four years of education for undergraduate studies whereas for graduate studies, a further two years are necessary, as is typical throughout the world. There are around 820 higher education institutions including universities with a total student enrollment of over 1 million.Some universities also ask for an additional year of English preparatory study to be completed before the start of studies, unless a proficiency examination is passed.