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Dr. G. O. Oluwasanya and Mr. J.O. Adejuwon. WMA 413: Hydromet Instrumentation I. 1.1 Introduction What is gauging? What is stream flow? What constitute stream flow? Stream flow measurement The common terms in stream flow measurement River or stream gauging; Hydrometry

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Dr g o oluwasanya and mr j o adejuwon

Dr. G. O. Oluwasanya and Mr. J.O. Adejuwon

WMA 413: Hydromet Instrumentation I


River gauging

1.1 Introduction

What is gauging?

What is stream flow?

What constitute stream flow?

Stream flow measurement

The common terms in stream flow measurement

River or stream gauging; Hydrometry

Water level/stage

Discharge measurement

Water level measurement

Measurement of stream velocity

Computation of discharge

Stream gauging stations

Site selection criteria

River Gauging


River gauging1

1.2 Stage measurement

Water levels of rivers, lakes and reservoirs

Stage measuring instruments

Staff gauges

Manually operated weight/electric sensors

Float operated stage gauges

Depth sensors

Procedures for stage measurement

Frequency of stage measurements

1.3 Discharge measurement

Velocity – Area method

Control structures

Dilution gauging

River Gauging


River gauging2

1.3.1 Velocity – Area method

Determination of cross-sectional area of stream

Measuring velocity of flow

Surface floats

Current meters

Types of meters

Operational procedure

Discharge computation

Mean-section method

Mid-section method

Empirical equations

Manning's’ formula

Chezy’s formula

River Gauging


River gauging3

1.3.2 The use of control structures

Weirs

---Sharp crested

---Broad crested

Flumes

1.3.3 Dilution gauging or tracer method

Types of dilution gauging

Constant rate injection method

Integration or gulp method

Characteristics of chemicals/tracers

Examples of chemical used as tracers

Condition for use of dilution gauging

River Gauging


River gauging4

1.4 The use of control structures

Weirs

---Sharp crested

---Broad crested

Flumes

1.5 Stage –Discharge relationship

Flow rating curve

The rating equation

Rating table

River Gauging


Sediment discharge

Sediment Discharge


Collection processing and publication of data

  • Collection and observation procedures

    • Transmission of hydrological and meteorological observations

    • Quality control

    • Storage and cataloguing

    • Special data collection requirements

      • ‘Bucket surveys’ of storm rainfall

      • Weather radar data

      • Extreme stages and discharges

Collection, processing and publication of data


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