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Meeting the Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act. Gongchao Yang, MD, MLS IACUC Academic Information Services University of Mississippi Medical Center April, 2008. Searching for Alternatives. Why do we need to? How are we going to?

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Meeting the information requirements of the animal welfare act l.jpg
Meeting the Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act

Gongchao Yang, MD, MLS

IACUC

Academic Information Services

University of Mississippi Medical Center

April, 2008


Searching for alternatives l.jpg
Searching for Alternatives Act

  • Why do we need to?

  • How are we going to?

  • When should we?

  • What will the library do?

  • The issues we are facing.


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Searching for Alternatives Act

  • Why do we need to?


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Assurances Act

To comply with the USDA’s Animal Welfare Act [9 CFR, part 2, Section 2.31 (d)(1)(ii) and (iii)] you must complete a written NARRATIVE of the sources you consulted to determine whether or not alternatives exist to procedures that may cause pain and distress. Likewise, this search will ensure that the proposed studies are not unnecessarily duplicative.


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Animal Care Policy #12 ActWritten Narrative for Alternatives to Painful/Distressful Procedures: June 21, 2000

  • •“..the performance of a database search remains the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/ distressful procedures.”

    http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/policy/policy12.pdf


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Definition of Actthe 3 Rs by Russell and Burch*

  • Reduction Minimize the number of animals used.

  • Refinement Employ techniques that reduce pain and distress.

  • Replacement Substitute animal with nonanimal methods or lower organisms.

    *Russell and Burch (1959)

    -The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique

    http://altweb.jhsph.edu/publications/humane_exp/het-toc.htm


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Searching for Alternatives Act

  • How are we going to?

    Minimum 2 databases need to be searched

    PubMed and MEDLINE are considered one database


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Approach to ActMeeting the Information Requirements

  • Approach the search in two phases.

  • Analyze the protocol to determine where alternatives might be used.

  • Decide where to go for the information.

  • Databases.

  • Websites.

  • Link terminology appropriately for best search results.

  • Evaluate the search results.



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Databases ActBiomedical and Biological

  • PsycINFO

  • ASFA

  • Pascal

  • SciSearch

  • Current Contents

  • BIOSIS

  • AGRICOLA http://agricola.nal.usda.gov

  • CAB Abstracts

  • MEDLINE

  • PubMedhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=search&term=

  • ToxFile

  • EMBASE


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Databases ActPharmaceutical and Technological

  • Pharmaceutical News Index

  • International Pharmaceutical Abstracts

  • NTIS (National Technical Information Service)


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Databases ActFederally-funded Research

  • CRIS (Current Research Information System)http://cris.csrees.usda.gov

  • CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects)

    http://crisp.cit.nih.gov

  • NTIS (National Technical Information Service)

  • FEDRIP (Federal Research in Progress)


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Additional Databases ActAvailable on the Web

  • Scientific and Technical Information Network (STINET)

  • http://stinet.dtic.mil

  • Alternatives to Skin Irritation Testing in Animals

  • http://www.invitroderm.com/

  • Altweb (Alternatives to Animal Testing Web Site)

  • http://altweb.jhsph.edu/


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Additional Databases ActAvailable on the Web

  • DoDBiomedical Research Database

  • http://www.dtic.mil/biosys/org/brd/

  • Scirus-scientific information search engine developed by Elsevier Science

  • http://www.scirus.com/

  • Animal Welfare Institute Enrichment and Refinement Databases

  • http://www.awionline.org/lab_animals/index.htm

  • PrimateLit

  • http://primatelit.library.wisc.edu/


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How to Search for Alternatives Act

Use three types of terms:

  • Scientific terms related to the research protocol;

  • Alternative (3Rs) terminology; and

  • Search terminology: boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT), limits, truncations, years, types of materials…


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Alternative Terms: ActRefinement and Reduction

Most search terms can be obtained from the protocol and area of study

  • analgesic or analgesia or painkiller

  • technique or method or procedure

  • anesthetic or anasthetic or anaesthetic

  • monitor or evaluate or supervise

  • restrain or immobilize or restrict

  • positive reinforcement or animal training

  • housing or facility or caging


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Alternative Terms: ActReplacement

  • artificial or vitro or culture

  • tissue or cell or organ, alternatives

  • animal testing alternatives, animal use alternatives

  • insect or arachnid or invertebrate

  • fish or mollusca or cephalopod

  • simulation or digital image or interactive

  • mannequin or manikin or model

    Animal Use Alternatives Thesaurushttp://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/alternatives/alternativeanimalusethesaurus.htm


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Search Strategy Act

Two Phases

  • Phase I, a comprehensive search for Reduction and Refinement- citations pertinent to PI’s field of study.

  • Phase II: Replacement- use of nonanimal or alternative animal models.


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Phase I: Acta Comprehensive Search for Refinement and Reduction

  • Refinement and Reduction aspects of alternative are broad and often are addressed in the methods of the studies. The search results will reveal the techniques used, commonly used species and whether the protocol unnecessarily duplicates previous research.


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Search Example Act

  • Topic:

    Stem cell-based therapy for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus


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Database: PubMed Act

  • Database covered: 1950-present

  • Date of search: April 17, 2008

  • Search covered: Recent 10 years


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Phase I: comprehensive search Act

Stem cell-based therapy for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus

PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1

Stem cells

Embryonic stem cells

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Fetal stem cells

Type 1 diabetes

Progenitor Cells


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Phase II: Alternative search for replacement Act

Stem cell-based therapy for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus

PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1

Stem cells

Vitro ortissue or culture

animal disease models

Animal use alternatives

Animal model

Animal testing alternatives

Analgesic or analgesia

Anesthetic or anaesthetic

Embryonic stem cells

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Fetal stem cells

Type 1 diabetes

Progenitor Cells


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Searching for Alternatives Act

  • When should we?


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Animal Care Policy #12 ActWritten Narrative for Alternatives to Painful/Distressful Procedures: June 21, 2000

  • Alternatives should be considered in the planning phase of the animal use proposal.


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Searching for Alternatives Act

  • What will the library do?


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The Library will Act

  • Assist PI with selection of the databases to search and search strategies.

  • Reference staff will conduct searches upon request for your animal study protocol at no cost.


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Search Evaluation ActThe PI Role

  • Check terminology, strategy, sources, and dates of search.

  • Review the search before completing the protocol.

  • Assess and evaluate the alternative possibilities.

  • Be prepared to support the use or non-use of any alternatives in writing.

  • Keep a copy of strategy, databases searched, and years of search for future use.


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Narrative and alternative search Actmight include…

Statements such as …

  • No satisfactory alternatives to painful procedures were found using the above listed search terms.

  • Based on the current literature, we have selected the least painful or least stressful procedure(s) that is/are adequate to answer our question.

  • While non-animal models are available to provide answers, they will be used in conjunction with animal experiments and , thus, can lead to a reduction in the number of animals needed for this project.

  • Our study is not duplicative of other studies identified by the search.


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Issues we are facing Act

  • Some databases are fee-based and the PI will be charged if a fee-based database is selected.

  • Not enough information in #16 provided by some PIs.

  • Timing, direct contact with the library early in the process will be more efficient.

  • Interpretation of the number of hits, and how to narrow a search.


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Search Evaluation ActRED FLAGS

  • Search completed at the last minute.

  • Only 1 database searched.

  • Terms only for painful aspects.

  • The term “alternative” used alone with no other alternative terms.

  • Keywords listed not relevant to protocol.

  • Keywords and concepts linked in an incorrect manner (e.g. wrong boolean operators).

  • Search doesn’t cover adequate time period (5-10 years).


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Act

  • Dr. Linda Fulton

  • Dr. Andrew Grady

  • Ms. Amanda Murray Kinslow

  • Dr. Susan Warren

  • Ms. Jean Garrett

  • Ms. Ada Seltzer

  • Ms. Susan Clark

  • Ms. Helvi McCall Price

  • Ms. Candace Vance

  • USDA Animal Welfare Information Center

    For their support and comments.