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LATG: A Review of the Animal Welfare Act

LATG: A Review of the Animal Welfare Act

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LATG: A Review of the Animal Welfare Act

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  1. LATG:A Review of theAnimal Welfare Act Created by Marc S. Hulin, DVM, Dipl. ACLAM

  2. History of AWA • Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966 (PL# 89-544): • designed to stop “pet napping” • applied to dog & cats dealers; research facilities that used dogs and cats • Animal Welfare Act (PL# 91-579) amended in 1970: • expanded to cover hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, NHP & other warm-blooded species • cover animals while on study • cover use in teaching and exhibition

  3. History of AWA • 1976 Amendment (PL#94-279): • carriers were covered & transportation standards were set • expanded to cover Marine Mammals

  4. History of AWA • Food Security Act of 1985 (PL# 99-198): • aka “Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals” • mandated training of all personnel using animals in research • defined duties & composition of the IACUC • developed standards for exercise of dogs & psychological well-being of NHP • defined one major operative procedure only: unless scientifically justified or vet. procedure • established Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) to prevent unnecessary duplication

  5. History of AWA • Protection of Pets-1990 Amendment: • attached to Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (PL # 101-624) • mandated a minimum holding period of 5 days for pounds and shelters before providing any live cat or dog to a “Class B” dealer

  6. APHIS & AWA • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS): • enforcement of the standards and regulations of the AWA • Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care (REAC): • group within APHIS that administers Federal laws concerning transportation, sale, and handling of animals used in lab research • NOTE: USDA inspections are unannounced and conducted annually

  7. Part 1- Definition of Terms • Animal: • any live or dead dog, cat, NHP, guinea pig, hamster, rabbit or any other warm-blooded animal intended for use in research • term excludes: birds, rats of the genus Rattus and mice of the genus Mus bred for research • also excludes horses not used for research purposes and other farm animals intended for use as food or fiber

  8. Part 1- Definition of Terms • Class “A” dealer (purpose bred): • breed and raise animals in a closed or stable colony • Class “B” dealer (random source): • purchase and/or resale of any animal for the purpose of research • Class “C” dealer (exhibitor): • showing or displaying of animals to the public

  9. Part 1- Definition of Terms • Field study: • study conducted on free-living wild animals in their natural habitat; which does not involve invasive procedures, and which does not harm or materially alter the behavior of the animals under study • Institutional Official: • individual at a research facility who is authorized to legally commit on behalf of research facility that requirements of AWA will be met.

  10. Part 1- Definition of Terms • Major operative procedure: • any surgical procedure that penetrates and exposes a body cavity or any procedure which produces permanent impairment of physical or physiological functions • Painful procedure: • any procedure that would reasonably be expected to cause more than slight or momentary pain or distress in a human being

  11. Part 1- Definition of Terms • Random sources: • dogs & cats obtained from animal pounds or shelters, auction sales, or from any person who did not breed & raise them on his or her premises • Primary enclosures: • any structure or device used to restrict an animal or animals, such as a room, pen, or cage.

  12. Part 1- Definition of Terms • Study area: • any room, area, enclosure, or other containment outside of a main animal facility where animals are housed for more than 12 hours. • NOTE: PHS Policy defines as 24 hrs.

  13. Part 2- Regulations • This part sets forth requirements for registration & licensing under the Act, adequate veterinary care, handling, holding, facilities, identification of animals, and recordkeeping

  14. Subpart A- Licensing • Persons operating or desiring to operate as dealers, exhibitors, or operators of auction sales must be licensed • Exemptions: • retail pet stores • persons who derive no more than $500 gross annual income • persons who maintain no more than 3 breeding female dogs or cats & sell offspring for pets or exhibition • persons who sell fewer than 25 dogs and or cats annually for research, testing, or education

  15. Subpart A- Licensing • Exemptions (con’t): • persons who buy animals solely for their own use & do not sell or exhibit animals • License application: $10 fee • Applicants must demonstrate that their premises, facilities, vehicles, equipment are in compliance • licenses are valid for 1 yr. • 30 days prior to expiration must reapply and submit annual report with income or number of animals sold.

  16. Subpart B- Registration • Carriers, Intermediate handlers, and exhibitors must register with the Secretary of USDA • Must be updated every 3 yrs.

  17. Subpart C- Research Facilities • Research facilities, other than federal research facilities must register • Updated every 3 yrs. • An official who has legal authority to bind the parent organization must sign the registration form

  18. Subpart C- Research Facilities • IACUC: • CEO must appoint IACUC members • Must consist of at least 3 people • Chairman • DVM with training or experience in lab animal science and medicine • Person not affiliated with the facility (not immediate family member) • If more than 3 members, no more than 3 members from same dept. • NOTE: PHS policy must have 5 members

  19. Subpart C- Research Facilities • IACUC functions: • review animal care program & inspect animal facilities at least once every 6 months • prepare reports from the review & inspection • review & investigate public complaints about animal care • review & approve proposed activities or significant changes • suspend an activity involving animals

  20. Subpart C- Research Facilities • Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care: • each facility must employ an attending veterinarian • part time or consultants must have a written program of veterinary care & regularly scheduled visits to the facility

  21. Subpart C- Research Facilities • Recordkeeping Requirements: • Must maintain IACUC records • Meeting minutes • Proposed activities & significant changes • Semiannual reports • must keep for 3 yrs. after completion of project • Must keep records for live dogs and cats • Health certificate, Animal description, USDA #, date of acquisition, vendor info. • All records must be available for APHIS and federal agency inspection & copying (FOIA) • NOTE: PHS require 2 more: AWA & AAALAC, Int. accreditation

  22. Subpart C- Research Facilities • Annual Report to USDA: • Must be submitted by Dec. 1 of each yr.; covers Oct. 1-Sept. 30 (federal fiscal yr.) • Considered alternatives to painful procedures • Assure adhering to the AWA • Common names and number of animals used in the following categories: • D or 0: no pain or distress • E or 1: pain or distress with appropriate drugs • F or 2: pain or distress without drugs; requires scientific justification

  23. Subpart C- Research Facilities • Identification of dogs and cats: • Official tag: • “USDA” • Numbers and letters identifying the state and dealer • Numbers identifying the animal • Tags cannot be reused within a 5 yr. period • Lost tags must be replaced with new tag and number & must be recorded in records • Tags must be kept for 1 yr. period

  24. Subpart C- Research Facilities • Identification of dogs and cats (con’t): • Tattoo • Collar • Unweaned puppies or kittens to not need individual identification if with dams • Health certificates: • Dog, Cat, or NHP transported from a research facility must be accompanied by health certificate issued by licensed, accredited vet. • Health certificate must have date examined by vet.; not more than 10 days prior to transport

  25. Subpart C- Research Facilities • Holding periods for dogs and cats: • Research facilities that obtain dogs or cats from sources other than dealers, exhibitors, and persons who are exempt from licensing regulations must hold the animal for 5 full days, not including the day of acquisition or time in transit

  26. Subpart H- Compliance with Standards • Holding period: • Any live cat or dog acquired by a dealer or exhibitor must be held for 5 full days, not including the day of acquisition or time in transit and must include at least one Saturday • This 5 days is for animals acquired from public pounds or shelters • Extended to 10 days if acquired from private or contract pounds or shelters • Pounds or shelters must hold for 5 days before releasing to Class “B” dealer

  27. Subpart H- Compliance with Standards • Holding period (con’t): • Before selling a random source dog, a dealer must provide certification relating to: • background and registration of the dealer and animal • description of the animal • background of shelter were purchased • statement by shelter that held for at least 5 days • assurance that the dealer notified person, pound or shelter that the animal might be used for research or educational purposes

  28. Subpart H- Compliance with Standards • Procurement of random source dogs and cats: • Class “B” dealers may obtain random source dogs and cat only from: • licensed dealers • state, county, or city-owned and operated pounds or shelters • another legally operated animal shelter

  29. Part 3- Standards • This sections specifies standards for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of dogs, cats, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, NHP, marine mammals, and other warm-blooded animals • NOTE: This section has a lot of common sense info. e.g., removal and disposal of waste must be regular and frequent or adequate potable water must be supplied for animals’ drinking needs

  30. Part 3- Standards • Indoor facilities: • Dogs, Cats, NHP: • the ambient temp. must not fall below 45 F or rise above 85 F for more than 4 consecutive hours when animals are present • Guinea pigs and hamsters: • the ambient temp. must not fall below 60 F or exceed 85 F • Rabbits: • indoor facilities need not be heated

  31. Part 3- Standards • Outdoor facilities: • Not suitable for guinea pigs and hamsters • Dogs and cats: • unknown acclimation status: do not keep outdoors if temp. is less than 50 F • Rabbits: • temp. > 90 F artificial cooling shall be provided (sprinkler system) • Shelter from cold weather: • Dogs and cats: below 50 F • Rabbits: below 40 F • NHP: below 45 F

  32. Part 3- Standards • Primary enclosures: • Dogs, Cats, & NHP: must be structurally sound and maintained in good repair • contain & protect from injury • allow animals to remain dry & clean • easy access to food and water • protection from extreme cold and heat • surfaces to be cleaned/sanitized readily • Dogs & Cats: • innovative enclosure that do not precisely meet floor area and height may be used; must be approved by IACUC

  33. Part 3- Standards • Cats: • must provide receptacle with clean litter • space requirements: • 24 in. high • < 8.8 lb or 4 kg must have 3.0 sq. ft. • > 8.8 lb or 4 kg must have 4.0 sq. ft. • queens with litters must have additional space • minimum floor space excludes food/water pan, but includes litter box • each primary enclosure must contain an elevated resting surface • no more than 12 adult cats may be housed in same primary enclosure

  34. Part 3- Standards • Dogs: • Interior height must be at least 6 inches higher than the head of the tallest dog when it is in normal standing position • Minimum floor space: • Equal to the square of the sum of the length of the dog in inches (measured from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail) plus 6 inches, expressed in square feet (divide by 144). • Dog measuring 30 inches, would be 36 x 36/144 = 9 sq. ft. • NOTE: Differs from Guide (based on wt. of dog) • No more than 12 adult dogs in same enclosure

  35. Part 3- Standards • Nonhuman primates: • Minimum space requirements must be met even if perches or swings are placed in the enclosure • based on typical wt. of species • ranges from Group 1-Group 6 • Group 6 includes great apes < 50 kg and brachiating species • Great apes > 50kg must have additional space for normal postural adjustments • Smaller innovative enclosures may be used but must be approved by IACUC/Administrator

  36. Part 3- Standards • Guinea pigs: • cage interior height: 7 inches • minimum floor space: 60 sq. in. < 350 gr and 101 sq. in. > 350 gr • Hamsters: • cage interior height: 6 inches • minimum floor space: see AWA • no other hamster may be kept in an enclosure with nursing female and litter • Rabbits: • minimum interior height: 14 in. • minimum floor space: see AWA

  37. Part 3- Standards • Environmental enhancement to promote psychological well-being: • dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must follow and document a plan for EE and must be directed by attending veterinarian • The plan must address: • Social grouping (conspecifics) • Environmental enrichment: species typical activity • Special considerations: juveniles, psychological distress • Restraint devices: must not be used unless required by protocol (restraint > 12 hrs. must give 1 hr. unrestrained daily)

  38. Part 3- Standards • Environmental enhancement to promote psychological well-being (con’t): • exemptions: • Veterinarian may exempt animals for reasons of health, condition, or well-being • IACUC may exempt for scientific reasons • Records of exemptions must be made available to USDA and federal agencies

  39. Part 3- Standards • Dog Exercise Program: • dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities must have appropriate documented plan to provide dogs with the opportunity for exercise • must be approved by attending veterinarian • plan must have written standard procedure

  40. Dog Exercise Program • All dogs individually housed with less than 2 times required floor space must be provided regular opportunity for exercise • Dogs that are group housed do not require additional opportunity for exercise if floor space is equal to at least 100% of the required floor for each individual dog

  41. Dog Exercise Program • Exemptions: • Attending veterinarian decision for reasons of health, condition, or well-being • exemption must be documented and reviewed at least every 30 days • Scientific reasons • must be documented in IACUC approved protocol

  42. Animal Health & Husbandry • Feeding: • animal must be fed at least once daily • food containers for all species must be sanitized at least every 2 wks. • Watering: • if potable water is not accessible at all times, potable liquids must be offered at least twice daily for at least 1 hr. each time • water receptacles sanitized at least every 2 wks.

  43. Animal Health & Husbandry • Sanitation: • effective program for control of insects, ectoparasites, and vermin shall be maintained • dogs, cats, and nonhuman primates: • excreta and food waste must be removed from primary enclosures daily • enclosures should be sanitized at least every 2 wks. • Hard surfaces can be cleaned by cage washer, live steam under pressure, or detergent and disinfectant

  44. Animal Health & Husbandry • Guinea pigs and hamsters: • enclosures must be cleaned and sanitized at least every 2 wks. • Rabbits: • enclosures must be cleaned and sanitized at least every 30 days • underlying pans or troughs shall be cleaned at least once a week

  45. Transportation Standards • Carriers and intermediate handlers may not accept animals for transportation more than 4 hrs. before departure • Must be accompanied by health certificate signed by vet. within 10 days of shipment • Temperature of terminal facility must be lower than 45 F for more than 4 hrs. when animals are present

  46. Transportation Standards • Primary enclosures used to transport live animals: • Interior must be free of any protrusions • Openings must be easily accessible for emergencies • adequate handholds for lifting must be located on exterior • Enclosures: must have words “Live Animals” or “Wild Animals” printed in letters at least 1 inch high on top and one side

  47. Transportation Standards • Food and water requirements (must be affixed to outside of enclosure): • Dogs, cats, NHP: • must be offered water and food within 4 hrs. of transportation • water must be offered at least every 12 hrs. • NHP > 1 yr., dogs and cats > 16 wks must be fed at least once every 24 hrs. • NHP < 1 yr., dogs and cats < 16 wks must be fed at least once every 12 hrs. • Guinea pigs, hamster, and rabbits: • animals in transit for more than 6 hrs. must have access to food and water or type of food to satisfy their needs during transit (Transgel)

  48. Transportation Standards • Guinea pigs, hamster, and rabbits: • Maximum allowable number of animals which can be transported in one enclosure: • Guinea pigs: 15 • Rabbits: 15 • Hamsters: 50

  49. Transportation Standards • Care in Transit: • Surface Transportation: • Animals must be observed at least every 4 hrs. to assure proper ventilation, temperature, or physical distress • Air Transportation: • Animals must be observed at least every 4 hrs. if the animal cargo area is accessible during flight. If not, must be observed during loading and unloading

  50. Terminal Facilities • Ventilation and Temperature: • Dogs, Cats, NHP (same for primary conveyances): • ventilation must be provided by windows, doors, vents, etc. • auxiliary ventilation must be used when the temp. > 85 F in holding area • ambient temp. must not exceed 85 F nor fall below 45 F for more than 4 consecutive hrs. when animals are present • Duration: • must not be held at terminal facility for more than 24 hrs. if consignee cannot be notified, but 48 hrs. if fails to take physical possession