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The Heart. Location of the heart. About the size of a clenched fist Rests on the diaphragm, located in the mediastinum Major blood vessels enter and exit the heart at the base Projects to the left of midline. Structure of the pericardium and heart wall.

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The Heart


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    1. The Heart

    2. Location of the heart • About the size of a clenched fist • Rests on the diaphragm, located in the mediastinum • Major blood vessels enter and exit the heart at the base • Projects to the left of midline

    3. Structure of the pericardium and heart wall • Pericardium holds heart in position while allowing movement • Serous pericardium is a double layer • Parietal layer is fused to fibrous pericardium • Visceral layer is fused to epicardium • Pericardial fluid lies between

    4. Layers of the heart wall • Epicardium- lubrication • Myocardium- bulk of cardiac muscle • Endocardium- continuous with endothelium of blood vessels; covers valves

    5. Chambers of the heart

    6. Chambers of the heart are bounded by sulci Atria and ventricles Right and left ventricle

    7. Fibrous skeleton of the heart is formed from dense connective tissue • Fibrous rings • Right and left fibrous trigone • Conus tendon • Functions • Limits stretching of valves • Controls movement of electrical impulses through heart

    8. Heart valves • Atrioventricular • Tricuspid • Bicuspid (mitral) • Semilunar • Pulmonary • Aortic • Control ejection of blood into arteries • Prevent backflow of blood

    9. The heart is a double pump

    10. Coronary circulation • Coronary arteries branch from ascending aorta • Anastomoses connect arteries and provide alternate pathways

    11. Coronary circulation • Coronary veins drain into coronary simus

    12. Cardiac conduction system • SA node • AV node • Av bundle • Bundle branches • Purkinje fibers

    13. Activity may be measured by ECG

    14. Cardiac cycle • Relaxation- all chambers in diastole • Atrial systole forces blood into ventricles • Ventricular systole forces blood into arteries • Heart sounds associated with valve activity (auscultation)

    15. The heart appears very early in development

    16. Congenital heart defects

    17. Coronary artery disease

    18. Heart problems can be congenital, degenerative or both • Conduction problems • Arrhythmias • Blocks • Fibrillations • Congestive heart failure • Cumulative damage • Right side-peripheral edema • Left side- pumonary edema