The Heart. Location of the heart. About the size of a clenched fist Rests on the diaphragm, located in the mediastinum Major blood vessels enter and exit the heart at the base Projects to the left of midline. Structure of the pericardium and heart wall.
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Location of the heart • About the size of a clenched fist • Rests on the diaphragm, located in the mediastinum • Major blood vessels enter and exit the heart at the base • Projects to the left of midline
Structure of the pericardium and heart wall • Pericardium holds heart in position while allowing movement • Serous pericardium is a double layer • Parietal layer is fused to fibrous pericardium • Visceral layer is fused to epicardium • Pericardial fluid lies between
Layers of the heart wall • Epicardium- lubrication • Myocardium- bulk of cardiac muscle • Endocardium- continuous with endothelium of blood vessels; covers valves
Chambers of the heart are bounded by sulci Atria and ventricles Right and left ventricle
Fibrous skeleton of the heart is formed from dense connective tissue • Fibrous rings • Right and left fibrous trigone • Conus tendon • Functions • Limits stretching of valves • Controls movement of electrical impulses through heart
Heart valves • Atrioventricular • Tricuspid • Bicuspid (mitral) • Semilunar • Pulmonary • Aortic • Control ejection of blood into arteries • Prevent backflow of blood
Coronary circulation • Coronary arteries branch from ascending aorta • Anastomoses connect arteries and provide alternate pathways
Coronary circulation • Coronary veins drain into coronary simus
Cardiac conduction system • SA node • AV node • Av bundle • Bundle branches • Purkinje fibers
Cardiac cycle • Relaxation- all chambers in diastole • Atrial systole forces blood into ventricles • Ventricular systole forces blood into arteries • Heart sounds associated with valve activity (auscultation)
Heart problems can be congenital, degenerative or both • Conduction problems • Arrhythmias • Blocks • Fibrillations • Congestive heart failure • Cumulative damage • Right side-peripheral edema • Left side- pumonary edema