Chapter 3 Sentences
Kinds of Sentences • Declarative- statement, . • Exclamatory- strong emotion, ! • Imperative- command, . or ! • Interrogative- question, ?
Your Turn • You and a partner have 5 minutes to come up with • 4 declarative sentences • 6 imperative sentences • 6 interrogative sentences • 4 exclamatory sentences • Try to make up a story!
Subjects • Subject- topic of the sentence • Simple subject- noun, pronoun, or group of words functioning as a noun; the main who or what of the sentence • Complete subject- the simple subject and all of its modifiers • Shana smiles and cheers us up. • Could be an understood you • (You) Sit up straight.
Predicates • Predicate- tells something about the subject, what the subject is doing or describing the subject • Simple predicate- complete verb • Complete predicate- the simple predicate and all of its modifiers • May be inverted
Inverted Order • Have you ever run a 10K race? • Did you place in your age group? • There will be several prizes. • Note that there and here will never be the subject of a sentence!
S-InV • S- Subject • InV- Intransitive verb, an action verb that does not have a DO • The cat walked across the floor. • The cat ran away from the dog.
S-TrV-DO • TrV- Transitive verb, an action verb that has a direct object • DO- direct object, noun that answers the question whom or what after an action verb • The eleventh grade students will get an A on the test. • I will grade the tests and later jump up and down.
S-TrV-IO-DO • IO- Indirect object, noun that follows an action verb and precedes a DO, answers one of the following questions: to whom, for whom, to what, for what • Miss MacQuarrie gave Emily a sticker. • The teacher told Abby the answer.
S-LV-PN • LV- linking verb, be verbs and other state of being verbs • A non-be verb is linking when it can be replaced with a be verb. • The dessert tasted sweet. • The dessert was sweet. • PN- predicate noun, noun that follows a LV and renames and equals the subject • CBA is a Christian school. • CBA=school • Pastor David is the principal of CBA. • Pastor David=principal
S-LV-PA • PA- Predicate adjective, adjective that follows a LV and describes the subject • The chow’s fur was matted. • The day looked dark and rainy.
S-be-Advl • be- a be verb (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) • Advl- an adverb or adverbial prepositional phrase that follows a be verb, usually showing place or time (where or when); there and here • The vacuum is in the closet. • The computer that runs the power point is here.
S-TrV-DO-OC • OC- objective complement; noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows an action verb and a direct object; renames or describes the direct object • The words to be can usually be inserted between the DO and OC. • The verbs make and consider often have OCs. • Ben painted his room [to be] green. • The class elected _____________ [to be] president.