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New Nations Gain Independence . Journal #42. Make a prediction: What do you think happens to colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East after World War II? Our first topic in the decolonization unit is India. What do you already know about India, Hinduism, and Gandhi? . Decolonization .

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journal 42
Journal #42
  • Make a prediction: What do you think happens to colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East after World War II?
  • Our first topic in the decolonization unit is India.
  • What do you already know about India, Hinduism, and Gandhi?
  • The process of colonies becoming independent countries after World War II
  • Why after World War II?
india background caste system
India Background: Caste system
  • Large country with many language spoken
  • Caste system:
hindu beliefs
Hindu beliefs
  • “Oldest living religion”
    • India: 80% Hindu, 14% Muslim
  • Brahman: Cosmic spirit
  • Reincarnation/samsara
  • Karma: Actions in this life that affect the next
  • Dharma: Your duty
  • Gods: Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma
imperialism in india
Imperialism in India
  • Decline of Mughal Empire in the 1700s
    • British make deals with maharajahs
  • British East India Company sets up trading posts
    • Cash crops: Tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and opium to trade with China (for tea)
  • “Jewel in the crown” of colonies
    • What does this mean?
  • Decline in local handloom textile industry
sepoy rebellion 1857
Sepoy Rebellion (1857)
  • Sepoy Mutiny/India’s First War of Independence led to the Raj (direct British government control)
    • Sepoys: Indian soldiers
    • Upset by a rumor that new cartridges for rifles would use cow and pig fat
  • Problem for the rebellion: the division between Hindus and Muslims
  • Film Study: Mangel Pandey, The Rising
questions for viewing the film
Questions for viewing the film
  • 1. Why is MangalPandey considered India’s first national hero?
  • 2. What does MangalPandey mean when he says, “We are all untouchables in our own land”?
    • Untouchables: Lowest caste of Indian society
  • 3. What does Captain William Gordon warn will happen if the British execute MangalPandey?
gandhi s principles
Gandhi’s Principles
  • Noncooperation and civil disobedience (satyagraha)
  • Nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance
  • Self rule/Indian home rule (swaraj)
  • What are some other examples from history? Non-examples? With a partner, come up with one example and one non-example.
primary source analysis practice
Primary source analysis practice
  • Step 1: Read the title, author, and intro.
  • Step 2: Read the questions, especially the long answer question!
  • Step 3: Highlight or underline:
    • Main ideas
    • Answers to the questions
  • Carefully re-read the sections of the text when you answer the questions!
gandhi primary source
Gandhi Primary Source
  • As you read, answer the following questions on the back of your sheet:
  • 1. What was Gandhi’s passive resistance?
  • 2. Why does he say that this kind of passive resistance is the best method for securing rights?
  • 3. What does Gandhi say about obeying unjust laws?
gandhi socratic seminar
Gandhi Socratic Seminar
  • Group 1: Was Gandhi successful in his civil disobedience campaign? Did he follow the principles he outlined in his Indian Home Rule writings?
  • Group 2: Do Gandhi’s ideas have any relevance today?
  • Group 3: Open. Your questions!
african decolonization
African Decolonization
  • 1. What was the legacy of colonial rule and imperialism in African nations and how did this history influence the struggle for independence and the success of independent governments in these nations following World War II?
  • 2. How did independence lead to long-term ramifications on government and society in these countries long after the decolonization era? How are these countries still living with the consequences of this period?
african decolonization case studies
African Decolonization Case Studies
  • Kenya: Hunter, Megan, Kenna, Leah, Karl
  • Ghana: Shawn, Kelsey, Holly, Matt, Julia
  • Rwanda: Sean, Molly, Brennan, Jeremy, Stephanie
  • Nigeria: Sami, Thomas, Elias, Paige, Britta
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): Mike, Sara, Cassie, Alex, Brittany, Evan
journal 44
Journal #44
  • List one similarity and one difference between the struggle for independence in your African case study country and the struggle for independence in India/Pakistan.
  • 1. Groups list on the board the information from their charts. Make sure to include:
    • Your country’s former colonial master
    • When and how the country gained independence
      • War, nonviolence, diplomacy, etc.
    • Major leaders
  • Present your writing and discuss one of the Essential Questions with the class
exit slip
Exit Slip
  • What are some common themes in the struggle for independence in all of these African countries?
  • What are some commonchallenges/problems these African nations faced after independence?
  • How did these countries’ colonial pasts influence their struggle for independence?
  • How did their struggle for independence influence their success in formingindependent governments?
journal 45
Journal #45
  • Compare Israel’s problems after independence to the problems faced by India, Pakistan, or African nations.
  • List one similarity.
  • List one difference.
background to the conflict
Background to the conflict
  • Creation of Israel as an independent state led to many conflicts in the Middle East following World War II
  • Israeli (Jewish) and Arab/Palestinian (primarily Muslim) claims to the land go back thousands of years
  • 1948: UN created the new nation of Israel from British-controlled Palestine
    • Why? What effect did World War II have on this?
    • Palestinians called it “al-Nakba” (a catastrophe)
background to the conflict1
Background to the conflict
  • This angered the Palestinians, who were removed from their lands, and several surrounding Arab states.
  • Today there are 4 million Palestinian refugees
  • Thousands of Israeli settlers now live in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
  • Israel has full control of Jerusalem; Palestinians want East Jerusalem
  • Many Palestinians do not recognize Israel's right to exist.
  • Arab countries attacked one day after Israel’s independence (no partition)
  • 1967: Israel gained more land after the Six Day War
  • 1960s and 70s: Rise of the PLO
  • Intifada: Palestinian “Uprising”
    • Started with civil disobedience
    • Now, suicide bombers
  • Creation of groups like Hezbollah and Hamas
peace efforts
Peace Efforts
  • Camp David Accords
  • Oslo Peace Accords
  • Road Map to Peace
  • Before you watch the film, write down a question you have about this topic.

As you watch the film, answer these questions:

  • Why do these children believe what they believe about their right to the land?
  • What have these children gone through that shape their view of the other side?
  • What happens when they meet?
journal 46
Journal #46
  • In the Arab-Israeli conflict, which of the two sides do you believe has the more valid (better) claim to the land? Why?
  • Do you think a compromise can be reached? If so, what might a solution look like to bring peace to this region?
afghanistan timeline
Afghanistan Timeline

1979-1989: Soviet Union tries to keep Communist government in power

  • 1980-1989: Mujahideen fight back, defeating the USSR
  • 1992-1996: Civil war
  • 1996: Taliban takes control of Kabul (the capital) and most of the country
  • 2001: US and Northern Alliance remove Taliban from power; war in Afghanistan begins
  • 2004: HamidKarzai voted president of Afghanistan; Taliban insurgency (terrorism)

Religious fundamentalism:

-Strict interpretation of a religion (in Islam, the Qur’an)

-View that your own type of religion has all of the truth

taliban and human rights
Taliban and Human Rights
  • Compare your daily schedule to the Taliban’s rules (girls need to look at both sheets).
  • Circle all of the “rules” that you violate on a daily basis.
  • Answer questions 1 and 2.
  • Then, read the list of human rights. Circle all of the rights the Taliban violated and answer question 3.
beneath the veil documentary
Beneath the Veil documentary
  • As you watch, answer questions 3 and 4.
  • :25-:31
exit slip1
Exit Slip
  • What was a main takeaway you learned about:
    • 1. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict
    • 2. Taliban in Afghanistan
  • Write one question you still have about either of these topics.