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The Troubled Personality. Psychology. Historical Views on Mental Illness. Causes: Demon possession : Treated by prayer and rituals, exorcism Mortal sin: Confession or penance Neuropathology: Surgery to remove organ causing problem Toxins in the body : Surgery and diet

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historical views on mental illness
Historical Views on Mental Illness
  • Causes:
  • Demon possession: Treated by prayer and rituals, exorcism
  • Mortal sin: Confession or penance
  • Neuropathology: Surgery to remove organ causing problem
  • Toxins in the body: Surgery and diet
  • Childhood trauma: Psychoanalytic therapy
  • Conditioned: Behavior modification
  • Sick society leads to sick behavior: Take responsibility for your own behavior
treatment of mentally ill
Treatment of Mentally Ill
  • Historically: often subjected to cruel inhumane treatment, less rights than others
  • Mental hospitals isolated and abused patients, experiment on them
  • Used as sideshow attractions, persecuted, misunderstood, jailed
  • 1700s is when shift toward fair treatment begins in France and US
  • Education and understanding are necessary to eliminate stigma and provide treatment and equal rights
mental illness
Mental Illness
physical factors that cause mental illness
Physical Factors that cause Mental Illness
  • Heredity: Scientists in search of specific genes that predispose individuals toward mental illness
  • Schizophrenia: Severe thought disorder, affects 1% of population
    • Grandparent: 4% risk factor
    • Parent: 16% risk factor
    • Both parents: Over 50% risk factor
    • Identical Twin: Over 50 % risk factor
    • Contribution: Growing up in household with schizophrenic family members?
  • Erratic behavior, delusions, loss of contact with reality, breakdowns in communication, inappropriate emotions
  • Most patients in mental hospital have this diagnosis
    • Catatonic: Unresponsive, withdrawn
    • Paranoid: Ideas of persecution, fear of attack, being possessed, etc.
    • Hebephrenic: Childish behavior and delusions
causes of mental illness
Causes of Mental Illness
  • Environmental Causes: Healthy people learn to cope with stress/anxiety and resolve conflict
  • Those with troubled personalities:
    • Have trouble handling frustration
    • Can’t cope with reality/stress/anxiety
    • Have issues with relationships/interactions
    • Can’t function normally in their family/job/society
stress and frustration
Stress and Frustration
  • Result from unmet personal needs/desires, pressures, poor relationships, etc.
  • When stress becomes unbearable, poorly adjusted people:
    • Chose behavior that seems to offer an escape
    • Unable to put off gratification
    • Become excessively emotional
coping with anxiety
Coping with Anxiety
  • Defined as vague worries about what might happen in the future
  • 1 in 50 Americans suffer from Panic Disorder
  • Causes excessive worry to the point of exhaustion and inability to respond correctly in emergency situations
  • Can cause fixation on single thought/pattern, in order to block out other concerns
obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
functioning within the family
Functioning within the Family
  • Often a troubled home life is what lead to the disorder
  • Maintaining close family relationships is difficult for the mentally ill
    • Living with others can cause extreme mood swings related to conflicts of interest
    • Puts an extreme strain on marriage and parenthood
functioning on the job
Functioning on the Job
  • Work can provide personal satisfaction, but also cause stress and pressure of competition
  • Mental Illness effects job performance:
    • Anxiety creates a distraction
      • Tasks aren’t done correctly or are forgotten
    • Difficulty coping or interacting
      • Can cause break downs or issues with customers/coworkers
    • People who have issues with authority figures have trouble holding down jobs
functioning in society
Functioning in Society
  • Freedom of action is limited by the rights of others
  • Emotionally disturbed people find it hard to accept limits to their desires
  • Pressure to conform can cause even more abnormal behavior
  • In social situations:
    • Inadequacy leads to insecurity and teasing, leading to more anxiety and increasing abnormal behaviors
biochemical imbalances
Biochemical Imbalances
  • Excess or deficiency of otherwise useful chemicals can upset the nervous system
  • Sometimes created through drug/alcohol abuse
  • Scientists researching influences of proteins, lithium, steroids, antipsychotic drugs, etc.
  • Withdrawal from substances can depression and other issues
  • Diseases that affect the nervous system can lead to abnormal behavior
  • Memory loss, disruption of speech, hearing voices, violent behavior, etc. can result from inflammation of brain or pressure from tumors
  • Strokes interrupt blood flow to brain often result in mental issues
  • STDs may cause breakdown of brain tissue
accident trauma
Accident Trauma
  • Injury or shock to the body can cause brain damage that changes personality
  • Trauma during birth can damage brain tissue, or lack of oxygen can cause impairments
  • Damage in small area may be restored with proper therapy
  • Severe brain damage cannot be reversed and tissue does not grow back
post traumatic stress disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Caused by overwhelming stressful events like war, natural disasters, or physical assault
  • Victims avoid activities that recall memories of the traumatic event
  • Often have trouble sleeping and have terrible nightmares
  • Other symptoms: emotional numbness, depression, sudden rage, jumpiness, and inability to concentrate
  • 15% of veterans display some symptoms but 1% suffer from full disorder
depression a cause and a symptom
Depression: A cause and a symptom
  • Feel down, low energy, little appetite, trouble sleeping no motivation or desire to do anything they normally enjoy
  • Refuse to be cheered up, enjoy the misery and dwell on thoughts
  • Healthy person experiences in brief small doses and then gets over it
  • Chronic or severe depression requires treatment
  • Can be brought on by specific event like divorce or death
  • Caused by social ills like poverty, discrimination or unemployment
  • Can be due to long term family issues, abuse, chemical imbalance, etc.
  • Clinical Depression: 7% of population suffer with this severe form
    • Twice as many women as men
    • 3-5% of teens experience despair or hopelessness of this disorder
treating depression
Treating Depression
  • Talk therapy and anti-depressants are common
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT):
    • Invented in 1938: Give patient muscle relaxant and anesthetic
    • Attach electrodes to comatose patient’s skull and shock their brain
    • Body stays relaxed, but triggers severe brain convulsion
    • Double-barreled therapy: Antidepressants with ECT every 3-6 months
mood disorders
Mood Disorders
ect safe and helpful
ECT: Safe and Helpful?
  • Pro: Benefits patients who would otherwise remain mentally ill
  • 60-70% Show marked improvement in their ability to cope with life
  • “Safer than aspirin”, memory loss is only temporary, minimize by confining treatment to one half of the brain
  • After ECT, many discard plans for suicide, begin responding to therapy
  • State/Fed approved, only given to those most likely to benefit
ect safe and healthy
ECT: Safe and Healthy?
  • Cons: Depressed patients show improvement without ECT
  • Not successful with schizophrenic but still being used on them
  • Results in death in 1 of 1000 patients, memory loss often lasts 4+ weeks, and for some it’s permanent
  • Wardens in mental hospitals use it as threat for controlling patients
  • No statistics prove or disprove the argument that it prevents suicide
    • Ernest Hemingway received treatment, said it destroyed his ability to write, he killed himself one month after 2nd treatment
  • Lack of adequate studies to prove safety, govt has approved dangerous things before
  • 100,000 receive ECT each year, $2500 a session, common therapist’s last resort
hallucinations and delusions
Hallucinations and Delusions
personality disorders
Personality Disorders
  • Self-defeating behavior that hurts others as well
  • Behavior issues start young
  • Anti-Social Personality Disorder: Hedonist
    • Display few symptoms, seem charming and smart
    • Selfish, very good liars, manipulative
    • Conduct Disorder: Delinquency, have issues with authority figures
    • Like to be in control, will exploit others for personal gain
    • Often called sociopath, lack of empathy, prone to aggression
    • Often incapable of selfless love
    • Some link to heredity, also childhood issues, patients often outgrow the disorder in their 40s
histrionic personality disorder
Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • Dramatizes every situation, highly emotional
  • Expects others to take care of their needs
  • Wild mood swings, can’t cope with experiences/environment
  • Emotional outbursts aimed at attracting attention and sympathy
passive aggressive personality disorder
Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder
  • Never speak up for what they want, others must guess what’s wrong
  • Cannot show normal aggression in an open healthy way
  • Instead, they arrange situations where the other person cannot possibly succeed in making them happy
  • Sabotages compromise in underhanded ways
  • “Nice guy” facade with deep hostility underneath, cannot admit anger and resentment
narcissistic personality disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • Overblown sense of self importance
  • Feeling of superiority, uniqueness, exaggeration of talents, boastfulness
  • Arrogance and overwhelming need for attention and admiration
  • Deep feelings of inferiority lie beneath the surface
  • Tend to exploit others, self-centered and fake
dissociative personality disorder
Dissociative Personality Disorder
brain damage or dysfunction
Brain Damage or Dysfunction
  • Imperfect brain development prevents capacity for high level thoughts or doesn’t leave grain the space to grown to full potential
  • Abilities do not increase with age, limited self-care but need guardian
    • Aplasia
    • Microcephaly
    • Down Syndrome: Caused by genetic defect, only develop to age 3-7
      • -1 in 900 births, odds increase as woman ages
      • -Amniocentesis can detect in developing fetus
  • Milder form is Asperger syndrome
  • 1 in 150 children have it
  • Serious neurological problem that can cause kids to be mute, have issues with social interactions, sometimes violent tantrums
  • “Live in their own world” responding to inner drives and needs, often very intelligent
  • Trouble expressing themselves, prone to self-stimulating repetitive behaviors
  • Caused by abnormally high levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain, genetic factors, and sometimes exposure to lead or mercury
  • Can be treated with medication and punishment/reward system of therapy
famous people with mental illnesses
Famous People with Mental Illnesses
  • Bipolar: Catherine Zeta-Jones, Mel Gibson, Carrie Fisher, Kurt Cobain, Isaac Newton, Beethoven, Van Gogh, Robin Williams, Ozzy Osborne
  • Depression: Brooke Shields (post partum), Abraham Lincoln, Winston Churchill, Ernest Hemingway, Charles Dickens, Zach Braff, Jim Carey, Sheryl Crow, Billy Joel
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder: Herschel Walker, a Heisman award-winning running back and former NFL player
  • ADHD: Michael Phelps, Kurt Cobain
  • OCD: Howard Hughes, Cameron Diaz, David Beckham
  • Anxiety Disorder: Paula Deen
  • Eating Disorders: Elton John, Princess Diana, Mary Kate Olsen, Richard Simmons