COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE. Communicative Competence’ s recent trends have put more attention to language as interactive communication among individuals, each with a sociocultural identity.
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Communicative Competence’ s recent trends have put more attention to language as interactive communication among individuals, each with a sociocultural identity.
communicative competence enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific contexts.
Paulston- Hymes Linguistic- forms communicative competence- knowledge that enable to communicate. James Cummins CALP- Context-reduced- forms BICS- Context- embedded- face to face communication.
Canale and Swain said that CC has four components: Grammatical competence: focused on sentence-level grammar. Discourse competence: concerned with intersentential relationships. Sociolinguistic Competence: knowledge of the sociocultural rules. Strategic Competence: verbal and nonverbal communication strategies to compensate breakdowns.
Strategic competence enhance the effectiveness of communication or to compensate for breakdowns. (Swain four years later) Strategic competence is the way we manipulate language in order to meet communicative goals.
Language competence Organizational Competence Pragmatic Competence Gramatical Competence Textual Competence illuocutionary Competence Sociolinguistic Competence • Vocabulary • Morphology • Syntax • Phonology/ • Graphology • Cohesion • Rhetorical • Organization • Sensitivity to Dialectic of Variety • Sensitivity to Register • Sensitivity to Naturalness • Cultural references and figures of speech • Ideational Funtions • Manipulative • Funtions • Heuristic Funtions • Imaginative Funtions The purpose that we accomplish with that language Ability to manipulate language
KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURES Knowledge of the World LANGUAGE COMPETENCE Knowledge of the language STRATEGIC COMPETENCE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS CONTEXT OF SITUATION
Halliday´s seven function The instrumental : manipulate the environment. The regulatory: to control of the situation. The representational : as one sees it. The interactional: to ensure social maintenance. The personal: to express feelings, emotions, personality. The heuristic: involves language used to acquire knowledge, to learn about the environment The imaginative: to create imaginary systems or ideas.
A single sentence or conversation might incorporate many different functions simultaneously.
Curricula were organized around different functions: identifying, reporting, denying, declining an invitation, asking permission, apologizing, etc. Now it is referred to as functional syllabuses. (Van EK and Alexander 1975) • Berns went on to show how context is the real key to giving meaning to both form and function.
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