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Developing Learners’ Communicative Competence Through Task-Based Instruction

Developing Learners’ Communicative Competence Through Task-Based Instruction

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Developing Learners’ Communicative Competence Through Task-Based Instruction

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  1. Developing Learners’ Communicative Competence ThroughTask-Based Instruction

  2. Overview • Goals of foreign language learning • Current teaching practices • “Exercise” vs. “Task” • What is task? • Why?--Task-Based Instruction—TBI • How to design and use TBI? • Question-answer

  3. Language is … • used as a vehicle for communication

  4. Communication is … • Lee (2000) • Expression • Interpretation • Negotiation of meaning • Long (1996) • Genuine human interaction • Input  feedback  output

  5. Language Competence … • Fluency • How well? • Accuracy • How accurate? • Pragmatics • How appropriate?

  6. Real-Life Situation … • A sunny afternoon on the street in Granada, Spain … María: Hmm … ¿Me puedo ,,, puedes decir donde ir a banco? Desconocido: Bueno, está muy cerca de aquí. Pase por el semáforo y doble a la derecha en la primera calle. El banco está al lado del restaurante “Pollo Loco” María: Hmm … ¿semáforo? [confused] Desconocido: [point it out the light] luces María: Ah …vvvvoy a banco para dinero no restaurante, sí? Desconocido:[took the pen out and started to draw the picture]Mire … María: Sí, sí, sí, gracias! [smiling] Tú eres muy amable.

  7. “Poor Mary” Pragmatics? Expression donde ir a banco ¿Tú or Ud.? Accuracy? Interpretation Hmm…Ah… Hmm… Negotiation of meaning Fluency?

  8. “Mary in Class” María, ¡No hables más! Oye, ¿Me escuchas?

  9. Blank, Blank, Blank … • Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb. • Yo _________ (caminar) por el parque y sus amigos ________(practicar) frisbi en la playa. • Nosotros _________(escribir) composiciones y Luis __________(leer) el texto de español.

  10. Column A ¿Cómo es el profesor? ¿Cuándo es la clase? ¿Quién siempre saca buenas notas? ¿Cuántos estudiantes hay? ¿Dónde es la clase? Column B Veintitrés En Horton Hall 303 Miguel DeRosa Muy serio y perfeccionista E. A la una de la tarde Matching

  11. Pattern Practice Modelo • Juan: ¿Vas a la escuela? • María: No, no voy a la escuela. • ¿Vas a la biblioteca? • ¿Va tu amigo a la playa? • ¿Van tus amigos a la plaza? • ¿Vamos al parque?

  12. Dialogue • Perform the following memorized dialogue. • María: ¡Hola! ¿Cómo estás? • Juan: Muy bien. ¿Y tú? • María: Regular. ¿Tienes clase ahora? • Juan: No. ¿Tomamos café juntos? • María: Sí. Me gusta “Green Mountain” • Juan: A mí también.

  13. Communicative Drill • Your partner is asking what you did last week. Be sure to answer in complete sentences. • Buy Christmas gifts • Study for a exam • See Halloween decorations • Attend a birthday party

  14. No More … Exercises Exercises Exercises

  15. Let’s Discuss … • Why are these “exercises”? • What teaching method is used? • What is the main focus? • Is it sufficient to “practice” the language? • Why?

  16. Exercises … Focus on “Form” • No “creativity” • Lack of “authenticity” • Exhausting and boring ¡Estoy agotado! ¡Qué aburrido!

  17. Limitations … • Teacher = “drill” leader • Student = “learner” but not “user” • Focus = “form” • Practice = perfect • Audiolingual Method (ALM) • Output = learned patterns

  18. Changes … • Evolution NOT Revolution • From ALM to Communicative Language Teaching—CLT • From exercises to tasks

  19. Differences … Ellis (2002) • Exercise • Form-focused language use • Language “learner” • Intentional • Task • Meaning-focused language use • Language “user” • Incidental

  20. More Changes … • From “form” to “meaning” + “form” • From Communication = question + answer to Communication = expression, interpretation and negotiation of meaning (Lee, 2000)

  21. Tasks

  22. Task ... A task is an activity “where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.” Jane Willis

  23. Example #1: Fill in forms • Listen to the conversation and write the missing information of each student. Name: Anna Age: 35 Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: Andrew Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: John Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Jazz

  24. Example #1: (continued) • Now compare your answers with your partner. Name: Anna Age: 35 Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: Andrew Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Name: John Age: Country: Birth Date: Married: Single: Occupation: Hobbies: Jazz

  25. Example #2: Fill in a chart • Listen to the automated ticketing service for ‘What’s on around town this weekend’. Make a list of movies, and concerts and how much they cost. MoviesConcerts $$$ ________________ $$$ ________________ $$$ ________________ $$$ ________________ $$$ ________________ $$$ ________________

  26. Example #2 (continued) • First decide three activities you would like to do and then work with your partner to make up the schedule for the activities. Activity 1 What? Where? How much? What time? Activity 3 What? Where? How much? What time? Activity 2 What? Where? How much? What time?

  27. Example #3: Role-play • You are in a clothing store and have $150 to spend. Card B: You are clerk --Offer to help --Tell him/her what is on sale --Suggestions: a bottle of perfume for mom, a pair of pants for brother, watch for boyfriend --Go to the customer Service Card A: You are customer --You are looking for gifts for three people --Your mom, brother and boyfriend --Ask for suggestions --Ask for prices --Ask him/her to wrap the gifts --Thanks him/her

  28. Example #4: Decision-making • You are on a ship that is sinking. You have to swim to a nearby island. You have a waterproof container, but can only carry 20 kilos of items in it. Decide which of the following items you will take.

  29. Example #4 (continued) • Axe (8 kilos) • Waterproof sheets of fabric (3 kilos each.) • Notebook computer (3.5 kilos) • Rope (6 kilos). • Fire lighting kits (500 grams each) • Portable CD player and CDs (4 kilos.) • Short-wave radio (12 kilos) • Medical kit (2 kilos.) • Bottles of water (1.5 kilos each) • Packets of sugar, flour, rice, powdered milk, coffee, tea. (Each packet weighs 500 grams) • Cans of food (500 grams each) • Box of novels and magazines (3 kilos) Source: Nunan D. (2000)

  30. Example #4 (continued) • Now work with three other students and choose the most important three items that you absolutely need to take with you. Item #1 Item #2 Item #3

  31. Example #5: Jigsaw “Esteban’s routine” • Student A: drawings—1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 • Student B: drawings—2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 • Generate the story orally with your partner • Write an essay together on a blank sheet of paper • Time: 30 minutes Textbook: ¿Sabías qué? (2002) Esteban se levanta y se lava ….

  32. Let’s Discuss … • Task? • Why? • What are the common features? • Other types?

  33. Task ... • Focus on both “meaning” and “form” • “Meaning”—information, idea • “Form”—grammar, vocabulary ¡Quédivertido! ¡Qué música!

  34. Task-Based Instruction

  35. TBI … • promotes communication, interaction and negotiation • fosters active participation and scaffolding • allows extended discourse

  36. TBI … • requires linguistic and cognitive skills • focuses on both accuracy and fluency • engages in real-time language processing

  37. One Step More … From Question-Answer To Task-based Activities

  38. Question-Answer Discussion --What did you do last weekend? Teacher: Did you go to the library? (select a student) John: No, I went to see a movie Teacher: What movie did you see? John: “Shall we dance?” Teacher: Who else went to see a movie? (select a student) Mary: No, I watched TV and ate pop corn. Teacher: What program did you watch? Mary: “The Sopranos”

  39. Task-Based Activity What did you do last weekend?

  40. Activity Dance at a party Running five miles Playing video games Playing a sport Reading a book Watching TV Writing a letter Making dinner SedentaryActive __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Step 1 Source: Lee (2000)

  41. Activity ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ SedentaryActive _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Step 2: Five More Activities

  42. Step 3: Interview … • --Did you go fishing last week? • --No, I read a book “How to become a millionaire?”

  43. Step 4: Compare … • Your partners responses to the categorizations you made in Steps 1 and 2.

  44. Step 5: Conclusion … • Use the scale to rate your partner’s week. very sedentaryas sedentaryvery active as active 1 2 3 4 5

  45. Task-Based Activity “The Most Interesting Person”

  46. Steps … • Step 1 • List 10 words that associate with “interesting” • Step 2 • Describe the person in U.S./in Spain/in France, etc. • Step 3 • Compare your answers with your partner • Step 4 • “Who is the most interesting person? And why?”

  47. Criteria … • Identifying a desired outcome • Describe the person • Breaking down the topic into subtopics • 3-4 steps from easy to difficult • Creating concrete tasks • From words to sentences • Building in linguistic support • Vocabulary: adjectives • Grammar: to be/like/…

  48. Types • Listing • Ordering and sorting • Sequencing/ranking • Categorizing/classifying • Comparing similarities/differences • Problem solving • Decision making • Information gap • Sharing experiences • Describing/narrating

  49. Participatory Structure • Individual • Intra-personal (private speech) • Social • Interpersonal • Teacher-students • Student-teacher/other students • Student-student (group or pair-work)

  50. Final Thoughts ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines Incorporation of four skills plus culture “Tasks” instead of “exercises” Authentic materials/pictures Feedback