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Models of Communication: communicative competence (monocultural) & the training of communicative skills. Seminar: The training of cross-cultural competence and skills Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Jürgen Beneke Speaker: Antje Stillahn Date: 6 November 2001. Contents. 1. Models of Communication

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models of communication communicative competence monocultural the training of communicative skills

Models of Communication: communicative competence (monocultural) & the training of communicative skills

Seminar: The training of cross-cultural competence and skills

Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Jürgen Beneke

Speaker: Antje Stillahn

Date: 6 November 2001

contents
Contents

1. Models of Communication

  • What is communication?
  • What is communicative competence?

2. The Training of Communicative Skills

(based on Schulz von Thun’s model)

3. Moving towards Intercultural Communication

(discussion)

1 models of communication

1. Models of Communication

What is communication?

What is communicative competence?

a definition
A Definition

“communication[Lat. communicatio ‘the action of imparting‘]

In its broadest sense, this term refers to every kind of mutual transmission of information using signs or symbols between living beings (humans, animals), between people and data-processing machines. [...]”

(Bussmann 1996:83)

a definition continued
A Definition (continued)

“In its narrower, linguistic sense, communication is the understanding which occurs between humans through linguistic and non-linguistic means like gestures, mimicry and voice ( non-verbal communication). The basic components of communication are shown in communication models. [...]”

(Bussmann 1996:83)

models of communication
Models of Communication
  • Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
  • De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
  • Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
  • Gerbner‘s General Model
  • Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
  • Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
  • Schulz von Thun’s Model
aristotle s rhetoric
Three elements of communication:

the speaker

the speech

the audience

Aristotle’s Rhetoric

(http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/aristotle.html)

models of communication8
Models of Communication
  • Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
  • De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
  • Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
  • Gerbner‘s General Model
  • Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
  • Watzlawick‘s, Beavin‘s, and Jackson‘s Model
  • Schulz von Thun‘s Model
de saussure s model of the speech circuit 1916
De Saussure’s Model of the Speech Circuit (1916)

Phonation

Audition

ci

c: concepti: image acoustique(acoustic image)

ci

Phonation

Audition

(http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html7text/6-1frame.html)

models of communication10
Models of Communication
  • Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
  • De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
  • Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
  • Gerbner‘s General Model
  • Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
  • Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
  • Schulz von Thun’s Model
the shannon weaver model 1949
The Shannon-Weaver Model (1949)

received signal

message

signal

message

information source

transmitter

receiver

destination

channel

noise source

(http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.html)

the shannon weaver model criticism
The Shannon-Weaver Model – Criticism
  • the ‘conduit metaphor’ (Reddy 1979)
  • linearity
  • content and meaning
  • instrumentalism
  • context
  • relationships and purposes
  • time
  • medium

(cf. http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html)

the shannon weaver model extension
The Shannon-Weaver Model – Extension

information source

transmitter

receiver

destination

channel

noise source

feedback

(cf. http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.html)

the shannon weaver model extension by moles 1963
The Shannon-Weaver Model – Extension by Moles (1963)

information source

transmitter

receiver

destination

channel

noise source

code 1

code 2

(http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html7text/6-2frame.html)

models of communication15
Models of Communication
  • Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
  • De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
  • Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
  • Gerbner‘s General Model
  • Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
  • Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
  • Schulz von Thun’s Model
gerbner s general model 1956
Gerbner’s General Model (1956)

PERCEPTUAL DIMENSION

M

SelectionContextAvailability

EEvent

E1

Source

ChannelsMediaControl

MEANS AND CONTROL DIMENSION

Destination

M2

SForm

ECon-tent

SE1

(cf. Gerbner 1956, in: Corner; Hawthorn (eds.) 1989:18)

models of communication17
Models of Communication
  • Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
  • De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
  • Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
  • Gerbner‘s General Model
  • Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
  • Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
  • Schulz von Thun’s Model
b hler s organon model 1934
Bühler’s Organon Model (1934)

Objects and States of Affairs

Representation

Expression

S

Receiver

Sender

Appeal

(http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html/text6.html)

jakobson s model of communicative functions 1960
Jakobson’s Model of Communicative Functions (1960)

Type Oriented Function Example towards

emotive addresser expressing It’s bloody feelings or pissing down attitudes again!

referential context imparting It’s raining. information

conative addressee influencing Wait here till it behaviour stops raining!

(cf. http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html)

jakobson s model of communicative functions 196020
Jakobson’s Model of Communicative Functions (1960)

Type Oriented Function Example towards

phatic contact establishing or Nasty weather maintaining again, isn’t it? social relationships

metalingual code referring to the This is the nature of the weather interaction forecast.

poetic message foregrounding It droppeth as textual features the gentle rain from heaven.

(http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html)

models of communication21
Models of Communication
  • Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
  • De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
  • Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
  • Gerbner‘s General Model
  • Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
  • Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
  • Schulz von Thun’s Model
watzlawick beavin and jackson 1967 pragmatics of human communication
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967): Pragmatics of Human Communication
  • One cannot not communicate. (Watzlawick and others 1967:51)
  • Every communication has a content and a relationship aspect such that the latter classifies the former and is therefore a metacommunication.(Watzlawick and others 1967:54)
watzlawick beavin and jackson 1967 content and relationship levels
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) – Content and Relationship Levels

Is that a realdiamond

(cf. Birkenbihl 1987:256)

watzlawick beavin and jackson 1967 content and relationship levels24
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –Content and Relationship Levels

Hi

CONTENT

(cf. Birkenbihl 1987:25/)

watzlawick beavin and jackson 1967 content and relationship levels25
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –Content and Relationship Levels

It’s nice to see Mary...

CONTENT

RELATIONSHIP

(cf. Birkenbihl 1987:258)

watzlawick beavin and jackson 1967 content and relationship levels26
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –Content and Relationship Levels

analytical thinking, words

CONTENT

RELATIONSHIP

older parts of the brain: emotions

(cf. Birkenbihl 1987:258)

watzlawick beavin and jackson 1967 content and relationship levels27
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967) –Content and Relationship Levels

Information

Information about this informationverbal, nonverbal; context

(cf. Birkenbihl 1987:259)

models of communication28
Models of Communication
  • Aristotle‘s Rhetoric
  • De Saussure‘s Model of the Speech Circuit
  • Shannon‘s and Weaver‘s Model
  • Gerbner‘s General Model
  • Bühler‘s and Jakobson‘s Models
  • Watzlawick’s, Beavin’s, and Jackson’s Model
  • Schulz von Thun’s Model
schulz von thun s model 1977 four aspects of a message
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –Four Aspects of a Message

..........

Content

Self-dis-closure

Sender

Message

Appeal

Receiver

////////////////////////////////

Relationship

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:30)

schulz von thun s model 1977 four aspects of a message30
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –Four Aspects of a Message

........

The traffic light is green.

THE TRAFFIC LIGHT IS GREEN

Put your foot down!

I’m in a hurry.

//////////////////////////

You need my help!

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:31)

schulz von thun s model 1977 three aspects of a non verbal message
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) – Three Aspects of a Non-verbal Message

........

Pleasecomfortme!

I am sad.

//////////////////////////

You hurt me!

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:34)

schulz von thun s model 1977 three aspects of a non verbal message32
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –Three Aspects of a Non-verbal Message

........

Please go on talking.

I am listening.

saying nothing

//////////////////////////

Your ideas are interesting.

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:35)

schulz von thun s model 1977 receiving with four ears
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –Receiving with Four Ears

What kind of person is he?

What are the facts?

How does he talk to me? Who does he think I am?

What does he want me to think or do, how does he want me to feel?

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:45)

schulz von thun s model 1977
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977)

Well, if you don‘t like my cooking, you can go and have your dinner elsewhere!

What are those green things in the sauce?

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:62)

schulz von thun s model 1977 four aspects of a message35
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977) –Four Aspects of a Message

......

......

There is something green.

There is something green.

Don‘t put green things into the sauce next time!

I don’t know what it is.

Tell me what it is!

sent message

I don’t like it.

received message

///////////////////

///////////////////

You‘ll know it.

You are a bad cook!

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:63)

schulz von thun s model 197736
Schulz von Thun's Model (1977)

.......

.......

Sent

Message

Sender

Receiver

Received Message

///////////////////////

......

///////////////////////

Feedback

///////////////////

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:81)

communicative competence
Communicative Competence

“Communicative Competence describes the speaker’s ability to select from the totality of grammatical expressions available to him, forms which appropriately reflect the social norms governing behavior in specific encounters.” (Hymes 1972:270, in: Beneke (ed.) 1993:76)

communicative competence38
Communicative Competence

“From a sociolinguistic perspective, communicative competence includes the following:

(a) LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE: verbal and nonverbal codes, and the range of possible variants

(b) INTERACTION SKILLS: sociolinguistic rules for appropriate use, discourse organization and processes, and strategies for achieving goals

(c) CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE: social structure, values and beliefs, and cognitive maps or schemata for the content domains”

(Saville-Troike 1992, in: Bright 1992:273)

2 the training of communicative skills

2. The Training of Communicative Skills

(based on Schulz von Thun’s model)

congruent versus incongruent messages
Congruent versus Incongruent Messages

.......

.......

//////////////////////////

//////////////////////////

Everything‘s just fine!

My life is a total disaster.

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:36)

receiving with one of four ears
Receiving with One of Four Ears

Self-disclosure

Facts

Appeal

Relationship

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:45)

three stages of receiving a message
Three Stages of Receiving a Message

perceiving

interpreting

feeling

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:74)

metacommunication
Metacommunication

analytical thinking, words

CONTENT

RELATIONSHIP

older parts of the brain: emotions

(cf. Birkenbihl 1987:258)

metacommunication44
Metacommunication

..........

Content

2) I-messages(Self-disclosure)

3) Wishes(Appeal)

(Leave the content level!)

////////////////////////////////

1) Explicit Metacommunication (Relationship)

(cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:201)

3 moving towards intercultural communication

3. Moving towards Intercultural Communication

Why is intercultural communication much more difficult than monocultural communication?

(discussion)

references
References

Beneke, Jürgen (1993): “English as the medium of intercultural communication: Some teaching suggestions“. In: Beneke, Jürgen (ed.) (1993), pp. 69-101

Beneke, Jürgen (ed.) (1993): Communication in Aviation : A collection of papers edited on behalf of IACTFLAP. Bonn : Dümmler (Sprachen und Sprachenlernen: 312; Dümmlerbuch 6312)

Birkenbihl, Vera F. (1987): Kommunikationstraining : Zwischenmenschliche Beziehungen erfolgreich gestalten. 8. Aufl. Landsberg am Lech : mgv-Verlag

Bright, William (ed. in chief) (1992): International Encyclopedia of Linguistics : Volume 2 : Expl - Moot. New York : Oxford University Press

Bussmann, Hadumod (1996): Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. London : Routledge

references47
References

Chandler, Daniel (1995): The Transmission Model of Communication. (last modified: 9 May 2000, last accessed: 5 November 2001) <http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html>

Corner, John; Hawthorn, Jeremy (eds.) (1989): Communication Studies : an introductory reader. 3rd ed. London : Arnold

Gerbner, George (1956): A generalized graphic model of communication. In : Corner, John; Hawthorn, Jeremy (eds.) (1989), pp. 17-18

Ipsen, Guido (1999): The Interactive MultiMedia Linguistics for Beginners : 6. Communication. (this version: May 1999, introduced: 20 July 2000, last accessed: 23 October 2001) <http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html/text/6.html>

references48
References

Schulz von Thun, Friedemann (1994): Miteinander reden 1 : Störungen und Klärungen : Allgemeine Psychologie der Kommunikation. Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag (rororo ; 7489)

Saville-Troike, Muriel (1992): “Communicative Competence“. In : Bright, William (ed.) (1992), p. 273

Underwood, Mick (1997-2001): CCMS - Communication studies, cultural studies, media studies infobase. (last accessed: 23 October 2001) <http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/index.html>

Watzlawick, Paul; Beavin, Janet H.; Jackson, Don D. (1967): Pragmatics of Human Communication : A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes. New York : W. W. Norton & Company