History of Marine Science. Unit 2. Voyaging. Travelling for a specific purpose First navigation was by celestial navigation- finding one’s position in reference to heavenly bodies. First Voyages 4000 BC Egyptians organize commerce on Nile 800 BC first cartographers make ocean charts.
– small underwater vehicles
– remotely operated vehicle
–lowered by a cable from a ship
– take sediment cores
Floating and Fixed platforms(FLIP – floating instrument platform)
-gather data like temperature, salinity, density, and weather patterns
– SEASAT: 1st satellite dedicated to ocean studies
Side scan sonar
– great for sunken ships
The Egyptians established sea trade throughout the Indian Ocean as early as 2300 B.C.
ca 1938 - 1756 B.C. built the canal, the Isthmus of Suez, to navigate ships across land.
It operated until 775 A.D.
Phoenicians: (from the Middle East)
Sailed around Africa in 590 B.C.
A stone carving from the 1st century AD shows the kind of ship that the Phoenicians used on the Mediterranean Sea
Herodotus published accurate map of Mediterranean region, ca 450 B.C.
Alexander the Great, 336 B.C. Developed trade routes throughout the Mediterranean and expanded their empire under Alexander the Great
200 B.C. Eratosthenes
mathematically calculated the circumference of the Earth to be 40,000 km.
It actually is 40,032 km.
2,200 years ago his math was good enough to be off only 32 km!
From Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
ca 200 B.C Islamic and Arab Merchants
traded throughout the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans.
They are believed to have invented the lateen sail
triangular sail important in early navigation.
900 A.D. The Vikings crossed the North Atlantic to colonize Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland
using the North Star to determine latitude
Exhumed Viking ship; Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway.
Sailed to influence and impress their neighbors.
Sailing for Spain, sailed the Atlantic and “discovered” the America’s.
1497 Vasco de Gama
Sailing for Portugal, sailed around Africa from Portugal to India to establish trade routes.
Europeans searched for the Northwest passage through northern Canada to trade with Asia; explored the Arctic.
1519 - Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan
the 1st European expedition to circumnavigate the world.
237 men began the voyage; 18 returned.
Magellan actually died before the journey was finished, but his crew returned in 1522.
1762 American Ben Franklin
created a chart of the Gulf Stream.
The Gulf Stream gives the US its warm climate, bringing warm water north from the equator.Science Voyaging 18th Century
1831 Charles Darwin
Explored Galapagos Islands
led to the origin of species and the modern theories of evolution.Science Voyaging 19th Century
routeof HMS Challenger(in red);
the expedition lasted 1,000
days and covered more than
68,000 nautical miles.
1898 John Holland invents 1st gas engine/battery powered submarine
bought by US government in 1900.
The world wars were the catalyst for US oceanographic research
Development of technologyincluding electronic equipment, deep sea drilling programs, (1916) SONAR, use of GPS (global positioning system) and satellites.
".... I saw a wonderful thing. Lying on the bottom just beneath us was some type of flatfish… Even as I saw him, his two round eyes on top of his head spied us…”
“Why should he have eyes? Merely to see phosphorescence?...Here, in an instant, was the answer that biologists had asked for the decades. Could life exist in the greatest depths of the ocean? It could!” - J. Picard
“Black Smokers" are named for the soot-like appearance of the ejected material billowing out of the "chimneys".
Super-heated water from the Earth’s crust with very high concentrations of dissolved minerals.
As the super-heated water meets the very cold ocean-bottom water, the dissolved minerals precipitate out and settle onto the rock around them.
This causes the chimneys to grow in height over time.
1985 JASON (a satellite)
found and documented the wreck of the Titanic.
JJ attached to Alvin to go inside the ship
1989 - Japan launched the Shinkai 6500
- can carry a crew without a tether (rope) up to 21,414 ft deep into the ocean (a world record).
In 2006, a Chinese mineral company (COMRA) designed a craft to reach 23,000 ft
The ocean represents the Earth’s last frontier for exploration and the key to understanding the future of our planet.
The human race depends on the life and sustainability of the ocean for economic, biological, and environmental stability.
The world of Aquatic science is ever reaching for new discoveries in this blue realm.