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Chapter Six

Chapter Six. Objectives Introduction to SQL Types of SQL statements Concepts of DDL & DML Creating Tables Restrictions on Tables Data Definition Language(DDL) Data Manipulation Language (DML). SQL. Structured Query Language Developed by IBM Used in most Commercial DBMS

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Chapter Six

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  1. Chapter Six Objectives Introduction to SQL Types of SQL statements Concepts of DDL & DML Creating Tables Restrictions on Tables Data Definition Language(DDL) Data Manipulation Language (DML)

  2. SQL • Structured Query Language • Developed by IBM • Used in most Commercial DBMS • Statements are not case sensitive. • Statements can be on one or more lines. • Reserved words cannot be abbreviated or split over lines. • Terminated with a semi colon. • Statements are entered at SQL prompt. The subsequent lines are numbered (SQL buffer) • Only one statement can be current at any time in the buffer.

  3. Types of SQL Statements • Data Definition Language (DDL) • Data Manipulation Language (DML) • Transaction Control • Session Control • System Control • Embedded SQL

  4. Example:

  5. Data Definition Language (DDL) • Format: CREATE TABLE [schima.]Table_Name (Attribute Attribute_Type [DEFAULT expr] [Col_constraint], …. Attribute Attribute_Type [Table_constraint]);

  6. Data Definition Language (DDL) • Example: SQL> CREATE TABLE student 2 (Name VARCHAR2(80), 3 ID NUMBER(9), 4 GPA NUMBER(3,2), 5 B_Date DATE, 6 Major CHAR(4) 7 );

  7. Data Definition Language Name:User Identifiers: 1-30 characters Start with an alphabet Followed by alphabet, digit, _ Unique Not reserved Not case sensitive

  8. Oracle Data Types: • Built-in Datatypes • ANSI Supported Datatypes • Oracle Supplied Datatypes • User-Defined Types • External Datatypes

  9. Example of Oracle Data Types: • CHAR(size) • VARCHAR2(size) • NUMBER(n,d) • DATE • LONG • ROW(size) • CLOB BLOB BFILE • XML • XML index

  10. Built-in Data Types: 1-Character: Format: CHAR [ (size [ BYTE/CHAR ] )] VARCHAR2 (maxsize [ BYTE/CHAR ] ) ‘4321’ ‘19 Main St. Frostburg’ ‘ * ’ ‘Student’’s ID’

  11. Built-in Data Types: 2-Number:Format: NUMBER [ (Precision] [, Scale] )] NUMBER NUMBER(P,S) 3-Date (&Time):Format: DATE MyBirthdate = ‘11-JAN-37’ TIMESTAMP

  12. Built-in Data Types: 4-Large Objects:Format: BLOB CLOB BFILE CREATE TABLE add_cosc_F08 (title VARCHAR2(80), composite BLOB, text CLOB, graph BFILE);

  13. Built-in Data Types: 5-ROWID:Format: ROWID

  14. ANSI Supported Data Types: Examples: CHAR CHARACTER VARCHAR NUMERIC DECIMAL INTEGER INT FLOAT REAL ……

  15. Oracle Supplied Data Types: Any Type:SYS.ANYDATA SYS.ANYTYPE SYS.ANYDATASET XML Type:XMLType URLType Media Type: ORDAudio ORDImage ORDDoc

  16. Display a Structure of a Table: DESCRIBE Student; Name Null? Type ---------------------------------------------------------- NAME VARCHAR2(80) ID NUMBER(9) GPA ……

  17. Tables • User Tables: • USER_ • ALL_ • DBA_ • V$_ • Data Dictionary • USER_TABLES • USER_OBJECTS • USER_CATalog

  18. Integrity Constraints Not Null Unique Primary Key Foreign Key Check -Why Integrity Constraints?

  19. Integrity Constraints • Inline (Col_Constraint) • Out_of_line(Table_Constraint) NOT NULL

  20. Integrity Constraints • NOT NULL: CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80) NOT NULL, ID NUMBER(9) NOT NULL, GPA NUMBER(3,2), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4));

  21. Integrity Constraints • Constraints on Tables: Why? NOT NULL: CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80) NOT NULL, ID NUMBER(9) NOT NULL, GPA NUMBER(3,2), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4));

  22. Integrity Constraints UNIQUE: CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80) UNIQUE NOT NULL, ID NUMBER(9) UNIQUE, GPA NUMBER(3,2), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4));

  23. Integrity Constraints UNIQUE: CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80), ID NUMBER(9), GPA NUMBER(3,2), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4), UNIQUE (Name,ID) );

  24. IntegrityConstraints PRIMARY KEY: CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80), ID NUMBER(9) PRIMARY KEY, GPA NUMBER(3,2), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4) );

  25. Integrity Constraints PRIMARY KEY: CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80), ID NUMBER(9), GPA NUMBER(3,2), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4), PRIMARY KEY(ID) );

  26. Integrity Constraints FOREIGN KEY: CREATE TABLE Course (C_Num NUMBER(4,0) NOT NULL, Dept VARCHAR2(20) REFERENCES Department(name), Title VARCHAR2(40), Credit NUMBER(1), CONSTRAINT dep_PK PRIMARY KEY (C_Num, Dept) );

  27. Integrity Constraints CREATE TABLE Course (C_Num NUMBER(4,0) NOT NULL, Dept VARCHAR2(20) Title VARCHAR2(40), Credit NUMBER(1), CONSTRAINT dep_PK PRIMARY KEY (C_Num, Dept) CONSTRAINT dep_FK FOREIGN KEY (dept) REFERENCES Department(name) );

  28. Integrity Constraints CREATE TABLE Course (C_Num NUMBER(4,0) NOT NULL, Dept VARCHAR2(20) REFERENCES Department(name) ON DELETE CASCADE, -- ON DELETE SET NULL Title VARCHAR2(40), Credit NUMBER(1), PRIMARY KEY (C_Num, Dept) );

  29. IntegrityConstraints • Range Constraint: CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHER2(80), ID NUMBER(9) CHECK (ID BETWEEN 000000000 AND 999999999), GPA NUMBER(3,2) CHECK (GPA BETWEEN 0.00 AND 4.00), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4) ); --CHECK (grade IN(‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’, ‘F’)) --Constraint grade_CK CHECK (grade IN (‘A’,’B’,’C’,’D’,’F’))

  30. Integrity Constraints CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80) CONSTRAINT student_nn NOT NULL, ID NUMBER(9) NOT NULL, GPA NUMBER(3,2), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4), CONSTRAINT student_UQ UNIQUE (Name,ID) );

  31. IntegrityConstraints CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80), ID NUMBER(9), GPA NUMBER(3,2) CHECK (GPA BETWEEN 0.00 AND 4.00), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4), CONSTRAINT student_ID_CK CHECK(ID BETWEEN 000000000 AND 999999999) );

  32. Constraints SELECT Constraint_Name, Constraint_Type, Table_Name FROM user_constraints; Constraint_Name Constraint_Type Table_Name ----------------------------------------------------------------------- SYS_COU2111 P student student_UQ U student student_ID_CK C student dep_FK R student

  33. IntegrityConstraints Constraints States: • DISABLE • ENABLE

  34. Integrity Constraints CREATE TABLE student (Name VARCHAR2(80) CONSTRAINT student_nn NOT NULLDISABLE, ID NUMBER(9) NOT NULL DISABLE, GPA NUMBER(3,2), B_Date DATE, Major CHAR(4), CONSTRAINT student_UQ UNIQUE (Name,ID) DISABLE );

  35. Default CREATE TABLE Course (C_Num NUMBER(4,0) Default ‘XXXX’ NOT NULL, Dept VARCHAR2(20) REFERENCES Department(name) ON DELETE CASCADE, Title VARCHAR2(40), Credit NUMBER(1).DEFAULT 3, PRIMARY KEY (C_Num, Dept));

  36. Default CREATE TABLE Temp ( inserts VARCHAR2(80) DEFAULT USER, arrived DATE DEFAULT SYSDATE, loggedInAs NUMBER(4) DEFAULT UID );

  37. Create table from a table CREATE TABLE tempstudent AS SELECT Name ,ID ,GPA, B_Date FROM student;

  38. Delete a Table: • DROP TABLE Student; • DROP TABLE Student CASCADE CONSTRAINTS; • DROP TABLE Student PURGE; • TRUNCATE TABLE Student; • PURGE TABLE Student;

  39. Flash_back • Privilege is required • DESC student; • DROP TABLE student CASCADE CONSTRAINTS; • SELECT * FROM RECYCLEBIN; -- USER_RECYCLEBIN

  40. Flash_back Object_Name Original_Name Operation Type TS_Name -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RB$$48448$TABLE$0 STUDENT DROP TABLE USERS Creation Droptime ----------------------------------------------------------- 2005-01-23:14:11:50 2005-05-01:12:30:31

  41. Restoring Tables from Recycle Bin: FLASHBACK TABLE Student TO BEFORE DROP RENAME TO Student2;

  42. Changing an existing Table Structure • Adding Columns: ALTER TABLE student ADD (Address VARCHAR2(50), Phone CHAR(10) ); • Modify Table Condition: ALTER TABLE student MODIFY (ID NUMBER(10,0), Name VARCHAR2(200) ); (continued)

  43. Changing an Existing Table Structure 3. Deleting Columns: ALTER TABLE student DROP COLUMN Address; ALTER TABLE student DROP COLUMN (Major, Minor); 4. Modify Table Condition: ALTER TABLE student SET UNUSED COLUMN Address ;

  44. Renaming Table Columns 5. ALTER TABLE student RENAME COLUMN ID TO NewID;

  45. Rules for Adding and Modifying: • You can add columns with no NOT NULL • You can increase the CHAR width • You can increase the number of Digits • You can increase/decrease the number of decimals • You can convert CHAR to VARCHAR2 • You can change data type if the column contains no values

  46. Changing the name of a table: RENAME student TO GradStudent;

  47. Adding Comments to a Table: COMMENT ON TABLE student IS ‘staff information’; COMMENT ON COLUMN student.column IS ‘text’;

  48. Viewing information about a Table: USER_TABLES USER_TAB_COLUMNS USER_ALL_TABLES USER_TAB_COMMENTS USER_COL_COMMENTS USER_TAB_STATISTICS USER_TAB_MODIFICATIONS ALL_TABLES DBA_TABLES

  49. Querying Data • SELECT * FROM USER_TABLES; • SELECT DISTINCT object_type FROM user_object; • SELECT * FROM cat;

  50. Add a constraint to an existing table: • ALTER TABLE student ADD CONSTRAINT student_pk PRIMARY KEY (ID);

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