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POULTRY DISEASES RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL PowerPoint Presentation
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POULTRY DISEASES RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL

POULTRY DISEASES RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL

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POULTRY DISEASES RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL

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  1. POULTRY DISEASESRESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL Amy Fayette Ross University October 2004

  2. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs + Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Vaccine Adenovirus (Type 1) Young Quail (< 4 wks) Fecal-Oral Tracheitis and bronchitis Coughing, sneezing, tracheal rales, airsacculitis Can reach 100% Virus isolation None Quail Bronchitis

  3. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs + Lesions Diagnosis Vaccine Adenovirus Infection Type 3 Chicken layers + ducks Pharynx and feces Loss of color in pigmented eggs, drop in egg production, thin to shell less eggs, rough shell, inactive and atrophied oviducts, edema in uterus Viral Isolation Inactivated vax: 14-16wk pullets Egg Drop Syndrome ‘76

  4. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs + Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Aspergillus fumigatus (mycosis) All avians, all ages Can penetrate egg shell and infect embryo, or spores in feed or litter and inhaled Dyspnea, polydipsia, emaciation, ataxia; mycelial growths in air sacs or lungs, corneal ulceration 5-50% Aspergillosis

  5. Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment CS and lesions, microscopic demonstration of fungus Good management, use only clean, uncracked eggs, mold-free litter and feed, keep water and feed systems clean Nystatin, ketaconizole (any antifungal but cost prohibitive), top up litter or spray with 1:2000 CuSO4 Aspergillosis continued

  6. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs + Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Avipoxvirus WW all ages Break in skin allows virus in, infected scabs can contaminate the environment Cutaneous form Papule Vesicle Pustule Scab Diptheritic form Space occupying plaque in upper GI and Resp May cause suffocation Cutaneous form- 1-2% mort Diptheritic form- up to 40% mort Avian Pox

  7. Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Vaccine Intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies, viral isolation, ELISA, viral material will produce lesions in fertile chicken eggs Recovery gives long immunity, live vax, eliminate cannibalism with beak trimming No treatment Live vax Avian Pox Continued

  8. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs + Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Vaccine Adenovirus (Type 1) Young Quail (< 4 wks) Fecal-Oral Tracheitis and bronchitis Coughing, sneezing, tracheal rales, airsacculitis Can reach 100% Virus isolation None Quail Bronchitis

  9. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical signs Lesions Type A influenza (orthomyxoviridae) All species (in US mostly turkeys and ducks) Airborne, viral particles from resp tract, fomites May be seasonal from migrating waterfowl, sneezing, rales, lacrimation, sinusitis, drop in egg production, diarrhea, edema of head, nervous disorder For HPAI: fibrinous exudate in airsacs, oviduct, sinusitis, focal necrosis in skin, edema, hemorrhages Avian Influenza

  10. Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Vaccine Notifiable or Reportable AI: variable; HPAI: 100% mortality Viral isolation, virus hemagglutinates Prevent exposure of exotic birds to commercial birds, quarantine, routine serological testing None Not helpful HPAI is Avian Influenza continued

  11. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Chlamydia Psittaci Most avian spp and most ages Carrier birds, primarily via inhalation of infected dust from dried feces also ingestion Mild resp signs, drop in egg prod, blood tinged diarrhea, ataxia, paraparesis; pigeons only show conjunctivitis; turkeys show depression, weakness, inappetence, nasal discharge, diarrhea and lung congestion Chlamydiosis

  12. Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Notifiable or Reportable Turkeys have splenomegaly with necrohemorrhagic foci 5-30% Culture and ID Avoid exposure to pigeons etc, all in all out system, quarantine Tx under supervision of state vet, tetracycline used but expensive and long course Yes Chlamydiosis continued

  13. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Coronavirus Chickens only, all ages Inhalation of virus containing droplets, carriers, survive up to 4 wks in environment Marked decrease in egg prod, soft shelled eggs with watery albimen, gasping resp, sneezing, coughing Avian Infectious Bronchitis Most common URI in the US

  14. Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Vaccine Cheesy exudate at tracheal bifurcation, ocular and nasal discharge in young chicks Morbidity: 100%; Mortality: 50% Viral isolation, ELISA Vax No effective tx, broad spectrum AB’s may prevent complications Modified live or killed Vax AIB continued

  15. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Morbidity + Mortality Haemophilus paragallinarum All ages (greater than 4wks), chickens, pheasants and guinea fowl Carrier birds, inhalation of resp secretions, ingestion of contaminated feed or water Conjunctivitis with cheesy exudates, oculonasal discharge, sinusitis, facial edema, sneezing, drop in egg production, anorexia High morbidity Infectious Coryza

  16. Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Vaccine Culture of sinus or tracheal swab in candle car, requires V factor from Staph, gram stain, fast moving URI with swollen sinuses is suggestive Eradicate and prevent, all in all out system, proper sanitation, vax Sulfonamides and AB’s, tend to relapse Bacterin and modified live vax Infectious Coryza continued

  17. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Morbidity + Mortality Herpesvirus All ages, esp mature chickens Carriers, resp transmission, mechanical via fomites Dyspnea, coughing, bloody mucus, cheesy exudates around face, neck and under wings, conjunctivitis, sinusitis, drop in egg production Morbidity: high; Mortality: 10-70% Infectious Laryngotracheitis

  18. Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Vaccine Notifiable or Reportable Viral isolation, chorioallantoic membrane of embroynated eggs All in all out system, don’t add vaccinated or recovered birds to susceptible flock Supportive care Attenuated vax Reportable in some states ILT continued

  19. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Mycoplasma spp More in older birds (chickens and turkeys) Transovarial, horizontally via inhalation of resp secretions, contamination of feed and water, fomites Develops slowly, poor condition, loss of weight, coughing, sneezing, rales, ocular and nasal discharge, drop in feed consumption, drop in egg production, airsacculitis Mycoplasma gallisepticum

  20. Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Treatment Vaccine Adhesive pericarditis, fibrinous perihepatitis, salpingitis, swollen infraorbital sinuses Mortality variable (higher in broilers) History of CRD with lower weight gain and drop in egg prod, isolate Mg, serology Dip eggs in AB solution or inject eggs, increase incubation temp 115 deg for 12 hours for hens eggs, broad spectrum AB Vax or bacterin MG continued

  21. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Mycoplasma spp Chickens and turkeys Transovarial, horizontally via resp secretions Swollen joints and tendon sheaths, lameness, drop in weight, exudate in joints, airsacculitis, breast blisters Mortality: 10% History of lameness and swollen joints, isolate Ms, serology Mycoplasma Synoviae

  22. Control + Prevention Treatment All in all out system, prevent carrier birds, depopulate, obtain Ms disease free chicks Broad spectrum AB, esp tylosin and tetracyclin, improve management and husbandry, decrease stress Ms continued

  23. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Mycoplasma spp All ages of turkeys Transovarial, semen may be contaminated, during vent sexing from contaminated hands Mild or unapparent resp problems, poor weight gain, airsacculitis, some poults show neck or leg deformities Mycoplasma meleagridis

  24. Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment History of air sac lesions in embryos and poults, isolate Mm, serology All in all out system, depopulate, obtain Mm disease free poults, dip eggs in Ab soln Broad spectrum AB, tx semen with AB Mm continued

  25. Cause Transmission Clinical Signs Paramyxovirus type 1 Infected droppings and resp discharge, transovarial Lentogenic: mild signs, subclinical; Mesogenic: resp signs (hoarse, chirping, nasal discharge, coughing), CNS involvement (0-25%), drop in egg production, higher mortality (up to 50%), mild airsacculitis, tracheitis, conjunctivitis; Velogenic: sudden death, marked resp signs, diarrhea, CNS involvement, facial edema, hemorrhagic foci in GIT, inflammation and froth in trachea and air sacs New Castle Disease

  26. Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Vaccine Notifiable or Reportable Lentogenic: low mort; Mesogenic: up to 50%; Velogenic: 50-100% Viral isolation, hemagglutination Control importation of birds, vax Supportive tx only Vax only for lentogenic and mesogenic strains Report all suspected NCD continued

  27. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Candida albicans All ages, mostly young chickens and turkeys Drinking water also improperly stored litter and food CS may be masked by a primary problem, involves upper GI, listlessness, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, regurgitation Candidiasis

  28. Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Control and Prevention Treatment Lesions primarily in mouth, esophagus and crop, white pseudomembranous or dipheritic patches, raised focal lesions, soft cheesy exudates Present in normal flora Culture and ID Good management and sanitation, obtain quality birds, decrease stress, avoid changes that alter the gut flora Bleach water supply, gentian violet to feed Candidiasis continued

  29. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Lesions Clostridium colinum Young quail and pullets Usually assoc with stress or other disease states Depressed, ruffled anorexic, watery white droppings Hemorrhagic enteritis in duodenum, GI ulcers, liver has yellow grey necrotic areas, spleen hemorrhagic and enlarged Ulcerative enteritis (quail disease)

  30. Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Mortality: 50%, greater in young Culture and ID Main reason for wire bottom cages Many effective drugs Ulcerative enteritis continued

  31. Cause Age group affected Clinical Signs Lesions Diagnosis Treatment Clostridium perfringens C Turkeys and broilers less than 4 wks old May resemble coccidiosis, diarrhea, huddling together, high pitched voice GIT thickened and necrotic, hemorrhage into lumen Culture and ID Many drugs effective Necrotic enteritis

  32. Cause Age group affected Clinical Signs Lesions Diagnosis Vaccine Clostridium septicum, perfringens and staph aureus Immunosuppressed birds (esp with previous IBD infection) mainly birds greater than 4 wks Legs and feet red and swollen; tips of wings, inner thigh, and under wing red Red sloughing of tissue, internal organs enlarged and congested, SQ gas production, lung jelly like Culture and ID Vaccines for IBD help to decrease Gangrenous dermatitis (malignant edema or necrotic edema)

  33. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Clostridium botulinum Most avians, esp ducks Ingestion of toxin Death 12-24 hours, weakness, incoordination, flacid paralysis, loose feathers (not in turkeys) 100% mortality after symptoms appear CS, may find toxin in crop Botulism

  34. Control + Prevention Treatment Keep animals away from where toxins may be Decaying carcasses, shallow alkaline ponds, maggots No treatment after CS, before CS: antitoxins, flush GIT, substrate to stimulate eating and drinking Botulism continued

  35. What are the top killers of wild ducks • Botulism • Lead poisoning • Cholera

  36. What are the top killers of domestic ducks • Botulism • Cholera • Duck viral hepatitis

  37. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Herpesvirus Ducks, geese, and swans, all ages Carrier birds via infected feces and other discharges, suspect arthropods that feed on infected birds CS 3-7 days post exposure, bloody diarrhea, blood stained vent, dehydration, cyanotic bill, high mortality, drop in egg production, tremors, inappetence, weakness, ataxia, unable to stand, photophobia, adhered eyelids (bloody conjunctivitis), polydipsia, severe hemorrhagic enteritis Duck viral enteritis

  38. Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Die in characteristic position with the neck twisted downwards, sideways or backwards High mortality up to 100% Viral isolation and ID, CS Avoid contact with wild waterfowl, good management, clean water, quarantine Supportive treatment DVE continued

  39. Vaccine Notifiable or Reportable Available but not for general use, only available by approved animal health authorities Reportable in US DVE continued

  40. Cause Age group affected Transmission Clinical Signs Lesions Enterovirus in the picornaviridae family Commercial pekin ducklings less than 4wks old Shed in feces by recovered ducklings for up to 8 wks after onset of infection Squat with eyes closed, ataxia, kick spasmodically Liver swollen and hemorrhagic, die in opisthotonos position Duck Viral Hepatitis

  41. Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Control + Prevention Treatment Up to 1 wk= 95%; 1-3 wks = 50%; over 4 wks = negligible Viral isolation and ID, suggestive if rapid onset hemorrhagic hepatitis in young ducklings In an outbreak inoculate IM with duck viral antiserum, vaccinate unexposed ducklings, vaccinate breeder ducks every 3-4 months Supportive tx DVH continued

  42. Cause Transmission Clinical Signs Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Organism favors alkaline soil and is resistant in the environment for years, shed in feces of recovered birds for 41 days, fecal oral route, can also enter through a break in the skin Sudden death, squat, and appear sleepy, depressed, unsteady gate, ataxia, yellow green diarrhea, resp signs, swollen snood, catarrhal enteritis Erysipelas

  43. Lesions Morbidity + Mortality Diagnosis Dark red skin, splenomegaly and congestion of internal organs, purulent arthritis and endocarditis in chronic cases Mortality up to 50% Culture and ID, use candle jar for incubation to obtain 5-10% CO2, gram stain liver or spleen impression smear Erysipelas continued

  44. Control + Prevention Limit contact between personnel and animals, prevent breaks in the skin, avoid stress in the birds, raise poults away from older turkeys that may be carriers, vax in enzootic areas with bacterin at 8-12 wks and repeat at least once, obtain semen from clean flock, debeaking helps to decrease disease Erysipelas continued

  45. Treatment Vaccine Pen and erysipelas bacterin, vax birds may show false rxn when tested for mycoplasma spp Vax available (bacterin) Erysipelas continued

  46. Cause Age group affected Transmission Escherichia coli All types of avians and all ages Fecal oral route, transovarial, contamination of the egg shell via fecal material from hen E coli Most common secondary poultry infection in US

  47. Clinical Signs Airsacculitis Thickened air sacs with caseous exudate Fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis 3-7 wk old broilers Assoc with dusty litter Many times will follow another resp dz Signs and lesions vary Acute septicemia (colisepticemia) Resembles fowl typhoid and cholera Acute condition common in 4-12 wk chicks Swollen internal organs Petechial hemorrhages Liver greenish with small necrotic foci Variable mortality E coli continued

  48. Clinical Signs Enteritis Diarrhea, mucoid enteritis Exudate soiled vent area Depressed and cachexic Omphalitis Most are mixed bacterial infections Navel area swollen and inflamed Wet abdomen Abnormal yolk material Peritonitis High mortality Dirty hatcheries E coli continued

  49. Clinical Signs Salpingitis Entry of coliform bacteria from vagina Affected birds usually die by 6mos and never lay Oviduct distended with purulent odiferous exudate Upright or penguin posture Coligranuloma (Hjarre’s dz) Looks like TB Uncommon Nodules in GIT, mesentery and liver E coli continued

  50. Clinical Signs Synovitis and arthritis Lame or recumbent Swelling of tendon sheaths and joints with caseous exudate Chronic arthritic condition may be seen Frequently a sequel to systemic infection Panopthalmitis Hypopyon usually in 1 eye which is blind Frequently a sequel to systemic infection Pericarditis Most systemic e coli infections have assoc peritonitis Myocarditis and opaque pericardial sac E coli continued