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Biomass to Energy in Germany Past – Present – Future an Overview. Prof. Dr. Bernd Stephan University of Applied Science Bremerhaven, Germany. Structure of Energy Consumption World - EC25 – Germany (IEA/BEE-eV). World EC25 Germany (2003) (2003) (2005) (%)

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biomass to energy in germany past present future an overview

Biomass to Energy in GermanyPast – Present – Futurean Overview

Prof. Dr. Bernd Stephan

University of Applied Science

Bremerhaven, Germany

structure of energy consumption world ec25 germany iea bee ev
Structure of Energy ConsumptionWorld - EC25 – Germany (IEA/BEE-eV)

World EC25 Germany

(2003) (2003) (2005)

(%)

Natural Gas 19.52 28.8 32.1

Nuclear 2.54 6.43 5.7

Renewables 20.34 8.57 6.4

Coal 13.86 9.05 18.1

Mineral oil 43.71 47.15 37.7

Total (TWh/year) 84 744 10080 2 936

energy consumption germany 2002 to 2005 bee ev
Energy Consumption Germany2002 to 2005, BEE-eV

2002 2004 2005

%

Natural Gas 21.7 22.4 32.1

Nuclear 12.6 12.6 5.7

Renewables 3.4 3.6 6.4

Lignite 11.6 11.4 8.7

Mineral Coal 13.2 13.4 9.4

Mineral Oil 37.5 36.4 37.7

utilization of renewables in germany in 2004
Utilization of Renewables in Germany in 2004 (%)

Biomass solid 44.1

Biomass liquid 0.1

Biomass gaseous 6.3

Solar thermal 1.8

Geothermal 1.1

Waste 6.4

Biodiesel 7.2

Rape oil/ethanol 0.4

Hydropower 14.7

Wind energy 17.5

Photovoltaic 0.3

slide5

Primary Energy for Generating Electricity in Germany

  • Lignite 27%
  • Nuclear Power 27%
  • Coal 24%
  • Renewables 12%

(including hydropower)

  • Natural gas 9%
  • Fuel oil 1%
german energy imports 2005 source iea federal office for economy germany
German Energy Imports 2005Source: IEA, Federal Office for Economy Germany

Mineral oil Russia 34.1%

Norway 14.7%

Great Britain 12.7%

Natural Gas Russia 42.6%

Norway 30.1%

Netherlands 22.5%

Coal South Africa 22.9%

Poland 22.0%

Russia 15.7%

what is meant by biomass
What is meant by „Biomass“ ?
  • Materials produced by metabolic activities of biological systems and/or products of their decomposition or conversion
  • The materials are based on carbon compounds
  • The chemical and energetic value of those materials is based on the carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bond
  • Biomass suitable for utilization must have a net heating value
  • Biomass is collected and stored solar energy
sources of biomass
Sources of Biomass
  • agriculture
  • residues from forestry, specific industries (e.g. furniture production, saw dust), food processing
  • solid municipal and industrial wastes
  • used wood e.g. from old furniture, used timber
  • marine systems: the oceans of our world contain much more biomass than existing on the continents (but they are not regarded as a source of biomass for energetic utilization)
biomass contributions to energy supply in germany thermal energy
Biomass contributions to energy supply in Germany: thermal energy
  • Wood
  • Wood residues
  • Municipal waste
  • Sewage sludge
  • Agricultural waste
biomass contributions to energy supply in germany electrical energy
Biomass contributions to energy supply in Germany: electrical energy
  • Wood
  • Biogas
  • Waste incineration
  • Fermentation of sewage sludge
  • Biogas from industrial waste water
biomass conversion
Biomass Conversion
  • Microbial treatment
  • Thermal treatment
  • Chemical treatment
  • Combinations
  • Mechanical processes
microbial treatment
Microbial Treatment
  • Long traditions in many cultures in the field of food processing e.g. beer brewing, alcoholic fermentation, preservation technologies as lactic acid fermentation
  • Waste treatment in agriculture and food industry by aerobic treatment (composting) and anaerobic fermentation
  • Treatment of municipal and industrial waste water
  • (Pre)Treatment of solid waste containing organic materials
composting
Composting

Composting is a traditional technology in agriculture and gardening. Today there are processes of treatment of municipal waste which make use of the heat of composting for drying the solid waste before separation under investigation. There is no significant contribution to the energy supply of Germany by composting of biomass.

Composting of mixtures of municipal and organic waste of food industry is implemented in many cities

anaerobic digestion biogas history
Anaerobic Digestion: Biogas History
  • History in Germany starting with utilization of „marsh gas“ in the 19th century: gas tight drums with an diameter of about 2 to 3 meter were placed upside down into the wet lands for gas collection and gas utilization for cooking – similar to the Indian Gabor Gas plant
  • Around 1920 trucks of public services were operated with compressed biogas from digestion of sewage sludge – in the fifties of the 20th century this was given up due to low cost mineral oil
  • In the fifties of last century some farmers built biogas plants for the treatment of aninmal wastes – the technology was based on different principles and processes
  • The oil price crisis in the seventies stimulated broad activities on the research and implementation side of agricultural biogas plants and resulted in optimized plant design and process performance. About 200 plants were bulit and operated at that time, but could not compete with the market prices for gas or liquid hydrocarbons.
  • The energy policy of German Federal Government now subsidies the utilization of renewables – as a result the market for big biogas plant goes up (most of them are connected to cogeneration plants)
potential of biogas
Animal excreta 4.5

Vegetable residues from agriculture 3.0-5.3

Wastes from Industry 0.3-0.6

Waste from parks and gardens 0.3-0.6

Organic municipal waste 0.6

Energy crops 3.7

TOTAL 12.7-15.3

Potential of

total (PJ/year) electric. (TWh/a)

96.5 7.2

65-113 4.9-8.5

6.4-12.2 0.5-0.9

6.4-12.2 0.4-0.8

12.5 0.9

78.7 5.9

265.1-324.9 19.8-24.2

Potential of Biogas

(billion m3/a)

thermal and chemical processes
Thermal and Chemical Processes
  • Combustion
  • Pyrolysis
  • Chemical Prozesses: hydrogenation, transesterification
  • Process combinations (e.g. the Choren-Process: BTL „biomass to liquid“)
mechanical processes
Mechanical Processes
  • Filtering
  • Dewatering
  • Sedimetation
  • Chopping/Cutting
  • Pelletising
conversion technologies state of the art
Conversion Technologies – state of the art
  • Biogas
  • Incineration
  • Pyrolysis
  • BTL (Biomass to liquid)
slide21

Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage SludgeSewage sludge is fermented and used to cover the energy demand of the waste water treatment plants. By doing this those plants need no external energy. The biogas is used for cogeneration of heat for the digesters an electricity for the aerobic waste water purification process (energy for pumping and aeration of the waste water).

wood incineration units
Wood Incineration Units
  • Normally chopped wood or chopped woodv residues are used as feeding materials for large cogeneration plants
  • For the heating of households pelletised materials are available. By using them the incineration process can be operated automatically. The cost for the pelletized wood in relation to mineral oil come to about 2/3
200kw plant for heat production
200kW-Plant for heat production
  • Feed: chopped from forestry, 50 kg/h
  • Density of feed material: 0.25 kg/liter
  • Efficiency: 0.85
  • 1600 hours of operation per year
  • Feed need per year: 380 m3
  • Storage capacity for 2-3 weeks: 40 m3
19 5 mw plant for gerating heat and electricity
19.5 MW – Plant for gerating heat and electricity
  • Input „fresh“ and old wood chops, 5.33 t/h max
  • Steam production: 25.5 t/h at 47 bar/430 oC), steam outlet from turbine: 2.2 bar/126 oC
  • Operation 8000 hours per year
  • Energy output electrical from 3.8 to 5.1 MW depending on heat delivery for the households
  • Energy output thermal: maximum 10 MW
wood a big potential in the forests
Wood – a big potential in the forests
  • In Germany there are growing about 60 to 100 millions of m3 wood per year, that can be harvested
  • That is an energtic equivalent of about 1.5 to 2.5 TWh/a
  • Compared to the actual energy consumtion of Germany this is a potential of 50 to 80 %
  • Actual energetic utilization of wood comes to 0.09 TWh/a only
market prices for selected materials current prices
Market prices for selected materials-current prices-
  • Wood chops 50€ per 1000kg
  • Wood pellets (dry) 200€ per 1000kg
  • Wood, fresh 50-80 € per m3
  • Biodiesel based on rape oil 0.95 € per Liter
  • Wheat 100 € per 1000kg
  • Mineral oil 650 € per 1000 Liters
energy content of wood based substrates average data
water content calorific value oil equivalent

(%) (kWh/kg ) L oil/m3

Pieces 20 4 165

Pellets 10 5 325

Chops 20 4 100

Saw dust 40 2.6 70

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Wheat 15 4 400 L/1000 kg

Energy content of wood based substratesaverage data
waste incineration example bremerhaven
Waste Incineration- Example: Bremerhaven -
  • Capacity: 315 000 tons/year
  • Energy output: 100 000 000 kWh/year electrical and 250 000 000 kWh/ year thermal
biomass as fuel biomass to fuel
Biomass as fuel, biomass to fuel
  • 1 Vegetable oil, fresh and used
  • 2 Modified vegetable oil, biodiesel
  • 3 Bioethanol
  • 4 Biogas
  • 5 Synthetic fuels
implementation biofuels
Implementation Biofuels

1 to 4:

proven technology of production and application

5: Under intense investgation with great potential: „sun fuel“, „BTL, Biomass to Liquid“

biomas to liquid sunfuel choren
Biomas To Liquid: SunFuel(Choren)
  • Modified „Fischer-Tropsch“ process: gasification of substrates at 400 to 500oC with lack of oxygen, further oxidation above ash melting point, mixing of resulting gas mixture with solid carbon residues to produce a raw gas for furher specific synthesis (similar Fischer-Tropsch)
  • 15 000 ton/year pilot plant is under operation
  • Cooperation with Shell, based on Gas to Liquid process, operated in Malaysia
the hydrogen problem
The Hydrogen Problem

C H O*)

Methane 0.75 0.25 -

„Mineral Oil“ 0.85 0.15 -

„Mineral Coal“ 0.83 0.05 0.12

Biomass 0.50 0.07 0.43

*) fractions by weight, rough figures

potential for sunfuel from million tons per year
Potential for SunFuel from…(million tons per year)
  • Forestry 2.5
  • Unused straw 4.0
  • Energy crops 3 to 6
  • Biomass available total

(Germany) 30

  • EU 25 115
fuel consumption million tons per year
Fuel Consumption (million tons per year)
  • 2005 50
  • 2020 (exp) 44

2005 Biodiesel (est.) 1.4

2020 Biodiesel (exp.) 11.1

future
Future

The future development will be based on increasing production of energy crops, optimized utilization of organic residues and on thermal-chemical treatment of organic matter to produce gaseous and liquid fuels.

There are lot of estimations for future contributions of biomass to energy supply, they will come to at least 20 or 30 percent until 2020.

windenergy in germany 2005 german association for windenergy
Windenergy in Germany 2005 German Association for Windenergy
  • Total installed capacity 18 400 MW
  • Number of converters 17 5784
  • Installed in 2005: 1049 new plants with a total capacity of 1800 MW
  • New installations expected for 2006: 1500 MW
  • Increasing market for German export
proposed future installation of power plants in germany not from renewables
Proposed Future Installation of Power Plants in Germany - not from Renewables
  • Capacity 23 000 MW (2012)
  • Capacity 40 000 MW (2020)
  • Total Investment 40 billion €