Hope and wish express different points of view about the present and future. • Hope refers to real possibilities. • Wish is used to express impossibility or improbability – that the speaker or writer wants reality to be other than it is
Hopes: present and future hopes are expressed by using present or future verbs or modal auxiliaries such as can in the dependent clause. • Wishes: present and future wishes are expressed by using would,could, or a special verb form – the subjunctive – in the dependent clause. In most cases, this form is the same as the simple past tense. • In formal English, were is used for all forms of the verb be. However, in informal English , was is sometimes used with I, he, she and it, although it is not considered correct. Use of that is optional in these sentences.
Wishes about the past • Wishes about the past express feelings or thoughts that did not happen, that are contrary to reality. • To show the unreality of the wish, a subjunctive form, which is the same as the past perfect tense, is normally used in the dependent clause.