1 / 26

Bolzano September 29 th 2006: Bilingualism in The Netherlands

Bolzano September 29 th 2006: Bilingualism in The Netherlands. Jacomine Nortier Utrecht Institute of Linguistics j.nortier@let.uu.nl. Topics in this paper. The Netherlands – demography Political developments Linguistic practices of Turks and Moroccans in NL

Download Presentation

Bolzano September 29 th 2006: Bilingualism in The Netherlands

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Bolzano September 29th 2006: Bilingualism in The Netherlands Jacomine Nortier Utrecht Institute of Linguistics j.nortier@let.uu.nl

  2. Topics in this paper • The Netherlands – demography • Political developments • Linguistic practices of Turks and Moroccans in NL • Mother tongue/Community language teaching: rise and fall

  3. The Netherlands • North-South: 300 km • East-West: 150 km • 16 million inhabitants • Capital: Amsterdam, almost 1 million • (Rotterdam: 600,000; Den Haag 400,000; Utrecht: 275,000)

  4. 1.7 million non-Western 320,000 Moroccan (= 2%) 365,000 Turkish (= 2.28%) 330,000 Surinamese (=2.06%) 130,000 Antillean 392,000 Indonesian The Netherlands (cont.):

  5. Major cities: more than 50% of school population is non-native Dutch

  6. Reason for migration: • Surinamese, Antillean, Indonesian: post-colonial. Antillean: most recent. • Turks, Moroccans: came as guest workers in the sixties, chain migration

  7. Important recent history: • May 6th 2002: Pim Fortuyn killed: he was the voice of the white Dutch ‘anti-immigrants-movement’. Became a hero after his death. 2 weeks later: elections. • Nov 2nd, 2004: Theo van Gogh killed by Moroccan muslim fundamentalist Mohammed B. Discussion about ‘freedom of speech’. • Mohammed B: member of ‘Hofstadgroep’: Moroccan fundamentalists who planned assaults. • At the same time: problems with Moroccans, mainly teenage boys. Marginalization. Increasing fundamentalism. • Consequences for society: strong polarisation; immigrant = muslim = dangerous.

  8. Politics in 2006 • The “Rotterdam-code”: Pim Fortuyn-city • One of the new rules: Dutch is our common language in public • Minister Verdonk (integration) in January 2006: whole country  protest. • Last week: wish everyone would speak Dutch everywhere (cauliflower in stead of chickpeas) • She is the most popular minister

  9. Linguistic practices of two groups: • Turkish: strong vitality, high status. In-group orientation. 2nd generation: Turkish and D/T CS is unmarked in-group language. • Moroccans: L1s (Berber and Moroccan Arabic) have low status. Main shared value: islam. 2nd generation: Dutch is unmarked. Mix with others.

  10. Linguistic practices of two groups (cont.): • Newspapers: Turks read Turkish papers • Moroccans don’t read Moroccan papers. Not available • Both: Internet and satellite-tv

  11. Turkish: Lokum. nl Turskestudent.nl Moroccan: Maroc.nl Maghreb.nl Amazigh.nl Websites (‘Ethno-Portalen’)(Androutsopoulos)

  12. Turkish websites: • Serious • Turkish and Dutch • All possible topics • Culture: not specific islam

  13. Moroccan websites: • Islam plays a role in many topics • Culture = Islam • Main language: Dutch. Arabic mostly in formulaic expressions. • Berber: identity construction • Fun and jokes; play with language: gataarlijk (gataar = dangerous Ar.; gevaarlijk = dangerous Nl)

  14. Typical on a Moroccan website: • Je bent nog mooier dan onze remra7 gezien vanuit onze sta7 bij het krieken van de sba7. • (You are even prettier than our court yard seen from our roof at the dawn of morning)

  15. Community Language Teaching • OET(C): Onderwijs Eigen Taal (en Cultuur) ‘Education Own Language (and Culture)’ • Since late sixties • Government took over responsibility • 1974: official

  16. Original goals of OET(C) • Maintenance of contact with original country and language • Remigration: easier to (re-)enter school • Help newly arrived L1 speakers to integrate in Dutch school system

  17. How was it organized? • Large groups: 2.5 during school hours and 2.5 hours outside • Small groups: 5 hours outside school hours • Voluntary basis • Poor material; from country of origin

  18. Late seventies: • Stay in NL turned out to be permanent • Later: OETC not a goal in itself anymore, but a means to achieve other goals, such as     - a- avoid identity problems of ‘foreign’ children; - b- integration into Dutch society - c- bridge gap between home/school - d- increase selfrespect to get better results

  19. Difference with early years: • In the early years, OETC was in the interest of the minority group. • Later: integration in minority group was considered undesirable; development of individual children; Dutch society • From 1991: OETC  OET; support learning of DSL

  20. 2004: the end • Position of OET-teachers: bad • Schools wished to pay more attention to DSL • Sociopolitical climate: don’t give ‘them’ a chance to segregate

  21. 2006: Moroccans have gone back to the mosques to learn Arabic. Opposite of what the gvt. did in the seventies.

  22. And further? • Small initiatives. Turks: language classes • Some municipalities: language schools; not only for children who learn their group’s L1, also adults. Other Ls as well. • Political interest and will is lacking, most political parties have other priorities. Not ‘hip’

  23. Conclusion: Bilingualism in The Netherlands …

  24. we love it!

  25. But only when one language is Dutch and the other English…

More Related