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International Symposium for Capital Region Development

International Symposium for Capital Region Development

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International Symposium for Capital Region Development

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  1. International Symposiumfor Capital Region Development 수도권 발전을 위한국제 심포지움

  2. Session I PresentationsonWesternCity-RegionsandDiscussion (구미 대도시권 사례발표 및 토론)

  3. International Symposium for Capital Region Development - London - October 25, 2005 Arthur D. Little London

  4. Agenda 1 Status and Competitiveness 2 Supporting London’s Growth Sectors 3 Large Scale Redevelopment Projects 4 Increasing the use of Public Transportation

  5. Agenda 1 Status and Competitiveness 2 Supporting London’s Growth Sectors 3 Large Scale Redevelopment Projects 4 Increasing the use of Public Transportation

  6. Status and Competitiveness • London Metropolitan Area is part of densely populated Greater South East which accounts for 34% of the GDP and has population of over 15 million (26% of UK) London Metropolitan Area is Part of DenselyPopulated Greater South East Triangle Greater South East Area (㎢) Population (000’) GDP(million $) Average population density in the Greater South East at 752/km² is nearly three times the UK average Greater London area 1,572(0.7%) 7,388(12.4%) 284,503(18.3%) South East of England 19,018 (7.8%) 8,100(13.6%) 149,624(15,7%) Greater South East Greater South East 20,590(8.5%) 15,488(26.0%) 434,127(34.0%) Figures in brackets show % of the UK total. Figures for 2003.

  7. Status and Competitiveness • London’s attractiveness as a major international business hub is reflected in high costs of renting and concentration of international companies and banks London Position Compared to Other World Cities Rank City Cost Index 1 London 100 2 Oslo 89.4 3 New York 85.8 4 Tokyo 85.5 5 Copenhagen 85 6 Hong Kong 82.2 7 Zurich 81.7 8 Paris 81.1 9 Chicago 81 10 Geneva 80.2 11 Dublin 79.7 London is the most expensive city (2005) in the world due to its high cost of renting accommodation Over 130 of Fortune 500 companies have their HQs in the city 12 Stockholm 77.8 13 Basel 75.8 14 Helsinki 75 Source: USB: Prices and earnings report. February 2005 update. Based on national purchasing power parities (PPP).

  8. Status and Competitiveness • London is the world’s financial center building on the highest concentration of international banks and strong insurance and capital markets Financial Services have historically been the principal growth sector of London economy Share of London Stock Exchangein global trading volumes Contributing Factors • Colonial heritage and early industrialisation • UK’s comparatively liberal economy • Limited restrictions on capital flows and advanced regulatory framework / strict “rules of the game” • London City self-governance principles • Since 80s working together London authority on further development (e.g. Canary Wharf) Source: London Stock Exchange (2005)

  9. Status and Competitiveness • London has gone through several distinctive phases of urban development culminating in adoption of development strategies set out over the last 5years Major phases of London development and urban policies over the last 50 years Post war recovery: 1/3 of London’s housing stock damaged during the World War II Blitz A growing exodus of businesses and people out of London moving into new towns. Many inner-city districts began to decline. Economic growth coupled with housing shortages lead to ever-increasing number of commuters Further growth increasingly hindered by lack of affordable office space and housing Future prosperity depends on effective use of finite resources and new construction in East London Urban development phases and issues 1950s – 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s – 2000s 2010s 1981 2000 Post-war London overspill housing policy led to a rapid increase in the size of the town during the 1950’s and 1960’s The Greater London Council (GLC) initiated a number of large transport projects including the M25 ring around Greater London Area Long-term redevelopment of London Docklands begins London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) founded Direct elections of the Mayor of London marks significant changes in governance leading to creation of The London Plan Plans for extensive development of East London and Thames Gateway to accomodate the anticipated population growth and support the Olympic Games 2012 bid Urban development policies

  10. Status and Competitiveness • There are a number of important internal and external developments driving evolution of strategies and urban development programmes in London Main Drivers Vision & Strategy of London (~2015 - 2020) Vision “A sustainable world city through strong economic growth, social inclusion and environmental improvement” Internal External Changes in the governance structure Multi-agency approach Long-term development strategies Population growth Cultural richness Limited industrial diversity Past underinvestment Global competition Environmental protection Competition from other UK cities regions Security threats Olympic games 2012 Objectives Prosperous economy by making the most of the London’s most successful sectors Efficient use of finite resources and energy Sense of safety and security, diversity and inclusion High standards of education, health and welfare Efficient, safe and comfortable transport systems Ready access to affordable homes Strategies Invest effectively and continuously in every physical aspect of the city and in its people Create a framework of comprehensive and coherent strategies for spatial and economic development, environmental issues, transport and culture

  11. Agenda 1 Status and Competitiveness 2 Supporting London’s Growth Sectors 3 Large Scale Redevelopment Projects 4 Increasing the use of Public Transportation

  12. Supporting London’s Growth Sectors • New growth sectors such as Creative Industries or ICT are increasingly contributing to London’s prosperity Future growth is likely to be more diverse Sector by size, productivity andemployment change (1995-2004) ICT* has been the fastest growing sector of London economy over the last decade with overall employment growth between 1994 and 2004 of 53% Professional Services** contributed £10bn while enjoying growth of 5.1% (2003) Creative Industries*** already generate £21bn and support about 500,000 jobs while enjoying average annual growth rates of 4.5% * Comprises the manufacture of hardware such as computers, telecommunications, hardware and software consultancy, maintenance and other computer related services ** Business and legal services, secretarial/translation services etc. *** Interactive leisure software, radio & TV production, design, music and performing arts, film, fashion etc. Financial Services Life sciences ICT Transport & Logistics Manufacturing Professional Services Retail Creative Industries Tourism & Leisure Employment size Source: KPMG/LDA: Understanding London’s Sectors (2003)

  13. Supporting London’s Growth Sectors • London has worked on providing more coherent support to London’s most promising sectors including Creative Industries Creative Industries in London The Support Available 40 % of people in the UK’s creative industries The Greater South East now contains 62 % of UK jobs Support is provided on two conditions The sector in question has potential to contribute to the prosperity on sustainable basis, and There is a market failure effectively addressable by public sector intervention Approach to supporting Creative Industries The London Development Agency created its dedicated strategic agency - Creative London The agency draws companies and individuals together through numerous projects Focuses on supporting new enterprises, initial financing, suitable premises and contacts Employment in Creative Industries in London andrest of the Greater South East Source: London Development Agency: London’s Creative Sector.

  14. Supporting London’s Growth Sectors • As in other cases London supports its Creative Industries through a dedicated strategic and funding agency Examples of support organisations in place Creative London • Launched in 2004 • Part of the LDA • Helps address bottlenecks to the success • Acts as a cohesive voice to represent the interests of the industry Experience so far • Welcome by the industries and viewed as a move in the right direction • Started several major initiative including: • ‘Creative Hubs’ • £50million seed fund • Sponsorship to over 40 distinctive projects Illustrative London Development Agency (LDA) 1 2 3 BioLondon Business Link for London Creative London BioLondon - Advises on interventions in the biotechnology sector Creative London - Strategic agency for London’s creative industries Business Link for London - Small business support and advisory 1 2 3

  15. Supporting London’s Growth Sectors • London’s approach to developing competitive advantages by promoting innovation Co-operation betweenUniversities and Businesses Role of the London Government There are 5,800 researchers in London’s 40 universities and colleges Employment dominated by high value added services with little emphasis on research Businesses R&D accounts only for about 0.6% of London’s GVA, i.e. about half the UK/EU average To date collaboration remains bellow expectations Some on-campus incubators more successful Innovation Strategy and Action Plan • Promoting culture of innovation • Enabling businesses to innovate • Harnessing the knowledge base Support through • Business innovation centres • Incubators • Access to innovation finance • Networking among SMEs

  16. Agenda 1 Status and Competitiveness 2 Supporting London’s Growth Sectors 3 Large Scale Redevelopment Projects 4 Increasing the use of Public Transportation

  17. Large Scale Redevelopment Projects – London Docklands (1981-1998) • The UK Government has established several partnerships to foster long-term regeneration plans of high importance to the capital city Regeneration of London Docklands: the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) Situation in late was alarming 70s • Large job losses with the Docks closure • The extent of dereliction was severe and costs of development potentially high and uncertain • The market alone was unlikely to provide the improvements Solution: London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) • Founded in 1981 by the UK Government as an Urban Development Corporation • Wholly financed by the Government and from the disposal of land • It had powers to acquire land by compulsory purchase • Took over for planning activities from the London Boroughsbut not their planning powers Major achievements • 2.6 million m2 of commercial/industrial floor space built and 24,000 housing units • £7.7 billion in private investment on the back of £1.86 billion in public sector investment • 1,066 acres of land sold for redevelopment

  18. Large Scale Redevelopment Projects – London Docklands (1981-1998) • Evaluation of success of the London Docklands regeneration programme and the LDDC reveals some important lessons Summary Findings Major Implications • LDDC managed mainlyby • Clearing and servicing sites • Provision of integrated transport infrastructure • Flexible and speedy planning decisions • Housing- Highly successful in addressing the market failure • Transport - Accelerated process for construction through its planning and land acquisition powers the LDDC • Community Development - Only 7% of the LDDC's net expenditure was spent on community services • Relationship with Stakeholders - Initially troublesome; improved when formal agreements with individual authorities were made Major success factors • Substantial assembly, planning and land acquisition powers • Adoption of firm plans led to reduction of risk as perceived by private investors • Integrated and varied planning Major lessons • Channel more investment into public services • Put emphasis on development of local employment schemes • Work actively with stakeholders on local level Source: Cambridge Econometrics. Sustainable communities: an urban development corporation for Thurrock. 1997. ADL analysis.

  19. Large Scale Redevelopment Projects – Thames Gateway (1995 ~ 2016) • London works together with its neighbouring regions on the largest redevelopment project in Europe – East London and Thames Gateway area Regeneration of East London and Thames Gateway area • Suffered from years of under-investment • 10x larger than the regeneration of London Docklands • The area contains 1/3 of London's derelict land • Covers broad-ranging issues including raising ambitions, provision of higher educationandbusiness innovation Main objectives of the programme • Create 255,000 new jobs and build 142,000 new houses in the area by 2016 • Engage private sector and all interested public parties in the strategic and implementation process Thames Gateway LondonDocklands

  20. Large Scale Redevelopment Projects – Thames Gateway (1995 ~ 2016) • Recent review of progress made to date in developing the Thames Gateway area revealed a number of useful lessons with direct implications for other projects Summary Findings Major Implications • Progress to date (1995-2003) • A total of 18% of housing units completed • The programme has built some momentum • However, the long-term structural decline in the economy has not yet been reversed • Organisational framework • No one organisation with an overview role in the Gateway as a whole • The organisational structures strongly reflect those of the participating sub areas • Monitoring of progress is proving difficult due to lack of binding targets on local level A strong area-wide organisation is essential Progress is easier to achieve where there is a clear line of decision making Drawing together existing aspirations expediates progress Strategies should be rooted in what is already beginning to happen on sub-regional level Targets must be cascaded down to local level Source: Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR): Thames gateway review.

  21. Agenda 1 Status and Competitiveness 2 Supporting London’s Growth Sectors 3 Large Scale Redevelopment Projects 4 Increasing the use of Public Transportation

  22. Increasing the Use of Public Transport • Strategy and policy support to London’s transportation London Transport and Its Future Directions London public transport • Accounted for 34% of journeys in 2003 • 329km of Underground lines • Traffic moves at an average speed of about 16 km/h • Central London Congestion Charge introduced in 2003 Future directions • Transport for London created as an integrated body responsible for the capital's transport system • Extension of London’s public transport system over the next 10 years to serve new developments in east London and Thames Gateway • The major long-term investment programmes include reconstruction of London Underground and extensions of Docklands Light Railway (DLR)

  23. Increasing the Use of Public Transport • London’s responses to growing road traffic and deteriorating accessibility Central London Congestion Charge Results so far Reduce number of cars entering inner parts of the city and Raise extra £130m each year to enhance public transport Makes use of a computerised network of CCTV cameras linked to a central database Heavy criticism by lobbying groups, most notably by retailers continues to date Number of cars entering the Central London dropped by 33% More than 350 busses added Raised only £75 and £100 million in the first year and second year, respectively Private cars entering the charging zone between 7:30 and 18:30 Congestion charge introduced Source: Traffic for London (TfL)

  24. Increasing the Use of Public Transport • Central London Congestion Charge has contributed to reduction of private road traffic but there have been many controversies over its adoption Major Lessons Effective in reducing congestion and providing additionalstream of revenue Must be accompanied by other measures promoting useof public transport Thorough planning, testing and consultation processes are essential Caused upheaval among retailers and other pressure groups Requires significant political will and support from citizens

  25. Increasing the Use of Public Transport • The UK Government has also established several other partnerships to foster long-term regeneration plans and improve quality of public services Public-Private Partnership for London Underground • Since 2003, the London underground has been operated as a Public Private Partnership (PPP) • Companies are granted long-term, not permanent, concessions to operate and modernise the tube infrastructure Benefits sought by the Government • The discipline and expertise of the private sector in managing large infrastructure projects • More effective use of resources and faster implementation of the modernisation investment programme Results so far • Pushed ahead by the UK Government despite strong resentment from the Mayor of London • Some safety issues • Difficulties in meeting performance targets

  26. Increasing the Use of Public Transport • Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have been fostered by the UK Government as means of providing public goods and services at better quality and cost Major Lessons Fair conditions and transparency are essential Long-term frameworks (10-20 years) Performance targets must be clearly defined and linked to strong incentives PPPs are proving to bea highly contentious issue requiring strong political will Requires thorough assessment and monitoringon continuous basis

  27. Summary – London Metropolitan Area UK economic engine (34% of GDP) Support to growth industries (Creative Industries) Major regeneration programmes (London Docklands, Thames Gateway) Increasing the use of public transport (Congestion Charge) Private-Public Partnerships (London Underground) Prepared by Arthur D Little UK

  28. International Symposium for Capital Region Development - Paris - October 25, 2005 Arthur D. Little Paris

  29. Agenda 1 Status and Competitiveness 2 Vision 3 Organization and Process 4 Resources

  30. Ile-de-France • Ile-de-France benchmarking directions Four Steps Approach 1 2 3 4 Vision Ile-de-France in the French context Organization and process Resources Step Key Issues IDF position in France Land policy historical background Legal frame of regional development and urban planning Development plan or strategy of city-region and core competency Background of vision and strategy (global urbanization) IDF strengths and weaknesses in economic development and urban planning Administrative system (territorial) : organization structure and R&R of central/local government, public/private institution Impact of degree of decentralization on regional development and urban planning Policy or plan making and implementing processes Detail procedures and participants Over concentration issues Disparity between districts within city-region1 Land settlement and housing policy Transportation Living environment Industry structure and specialized industries Culture / tourism facilities Links between private sector education system Note : all acronyms are French acronyms 1) Disparity issues between districts within city-region is handled through housing, transportation and settlement prism

  31. Agenda 1 Ile-de-France in the French Context 2 Vision 3 Organization and Process 4 Resources

  32. Gross area (km²) Population (thousand, 2003) GDP (billion $, 2000) Paris 105 2 147 177,7 % of whole country 0,02% 3,7% 10,2% Ile-de-France 12,001 11,130 499.7 % of whole country 2,2% 19% 28,6% Ile-de-France in the French Context • Ile-de-France area is the head-region of France accounting for 19% of French population on only 2% of the territory IDF region is constituted ofeight counties 19% of the population on 2% of the French territory 1. Paris 2. Hauts-de-Seine 3. Seine-Saint-Denis 4. Val-de-Marne A moderate growth of GDP and population Ile-de-France counties GDP (billion $) Population (thousand) Val-d’Oise +0,4% +1,1% +0,5% +0,5% 3. +0,2% 2. 1. Yvelines 4. Seine-et-Marne Essonne Source : INSEE

  33. Rest of France Portion of IDF Ile-de-France in the French Context • Due to the historic power centralization in France, Ile-de-France region remains the heart of French economy and culture IDF is the France’s business center Comments 29% of national wealth, and 5% of EU GDP, thanks to a high density of headquarters of national and multinational companies, second region in Europe for foreign direct investment after Greater London Prominent place in the migratory moves in the metropolitan territory : 40 % of moving people between 1999 and 2004 left IDF or settled in IDF First job area (half of the French executives, 35% of public research staff) and world recognized schools and universities French jacobin tradition of power centralization in IDF with Paris as administrative center Gate to the outside world and between regions : second European airport hub, interconnetion with TGV network, numerous transportation infrastructures1, 70 harbors, second fluvial platform of Europe Benchmark region in cultural field : first tourist destination in the world, major center for trade shows and exhibitions2 Indicator Part of IDF in France GDP 29% Population 19% % R&D researchers 35% Export 17,3% Source : CCIP, 2005, INSEE, 2005, 1) 210 km subway, 1 400 km Regional rail rapid Transit (RER), 3000 km of bus lines, 2) 2000 exhibitions in 2003 in the 10 main exhibition centers

  34. Ile-de-France in the French Context • French government has tried during the last 40 years to balance the economic development between the head region and the other regions without eroding Ile-de-France competitiveness National land settlement policy has targeted on balancing of territories and an adaptation of the country to global economic and social outlook To offset the Parisian pole through a re balancing of the territory to solve the opposition between “Paris and the French desert” To respond to the 1973 economical and social crisis To organize the institutional decentralization To take part in the European increase in power To integrate globalization while developing local anchorage To adapt to 3 challenges : • European enlargement • Globalization of the economy • Reinforcement of the decentralization French national Strategy 1990’s –2000’s 1950’s –1960’s 1970’s 1980’s 21 C Key dates 1963 1973 1982 / 1985 2004 Cooperation with the European regions Besides crisis management, focus on creating wealth Promotion of equality between territories Methodology : decentralization, national planning policy shared by the national government and the local governments Creation of the DATAR (Delegation for Regional Planning and Regional Action) in 1963 Regional metropolis policy Launch of new towns (1970) to strengthen the urban mesh: Decentralization of the public and industrial sector: aerospace in Toulouse and Bordeaux and electronics in Bretagne Support weak rural zones State-Region Plan contract(1984, 1989, 1994, 2000) Creation of the European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER, 1985) Reform of the European structural funds Inter-regional plans in the Parisian basin (1994) Planning board dedicated to the digital industry (2001) Deepening of decentralization (2004) Promotion of industrial cluster development (2005) Employment policy : creation of free zones (1955), economic restructuring offices, regional innovation centers (CRITT) Policy linked to the human dimension of the city : policy of the medium cities (1973), country agreements (1975) Land settlement policy

  35. Ile-de-France in the French Context • France is among European most dynamic country in terms of international attractiveness France is ranked 2 in terms of internationalimplantation of strategic companies functions1) France capitalizes on its competitiveadvantages 10 first European implantation countries(2003-2004) Evaluation of satisfaction toward site France assets (note, out of 10) Country # of international implantations in 2004 Market share in 2004 Market share evolution 2003/2004 Quality of life United Kingdom 563 19,5% -17% Telecom infrastructures France 490 17,0% 5% Germany 164 5,7% -1% Transport and logistic infrastructures Poland 148 5,1% 115% Hungary 139 4,8% 9% Spain 121 4,2% -32% Workforce qualification Russia 116 4% -29% Czech Republic 112 3,9% -17% Culture and language Belgium 107 3,7% -6% Sweden 97 3,4% -12% Innovation and research poles quality Other 828 28,7% 22% Total 2885 100% Source : Ernst & Young 2005, Barometer of France site attractivity, 1) Strategic functions : headquarters, R&D centers, services centers Source : Ernst & Young 2005, Barometer of France site attractiveness – 204 international firms CEO survey

  36. Ile-de-France in the French Context • Compared to other metropolitan areas, Ile-de-France region experiences substantial economic development with a quality of life considered as intermediate IDF is number 2 in terms of internationalimplantation in Europe IDF enjoys an intermediate quality of life incomparison to a representative metropolis panel # of implantations in 15 firstEuropean metropolis areas Liveability index2000, New York : base 100 Region # of international implantations in 2004 Market share in 2004 Market share evolution (points) 2003/2004 Greater London 153 24% +0,4 Ile-de-France 136 21% +11,3 Moscow 53 8% -1,6 Catalonia 50 8% -9,4 Stockholm 47 7% +0,2 Budapest 38 6% +0,1 Dublin 32 5% +1,7 Madrid 32 5% +1 Hesse 20 3% +0,2 Paris Nord-Rhein Westphaly 19 3% -1,9 Amsterdam Frankfurt Brussels London New York Lombardy 18 3% +0,5 North-Holland 14 2% -0,5 Brussels 11 2% -1,9 Berlin 7 1% 0 Note : the liveability index gives an assessment of metropolis attractiveness in terms of well being. It is based on public security, healthcare, education, transport and other public services Geneva 6 1% -0,1 Total 15 metropolis 636 100% Source : Ernst & Young 2005, Barometer of France site attractivity Source : William M. Mercer, 2000

  37. Ile-de-France in the French Context • The Ile-de-France region have strong assets but suffers from pending weaknesses Main assets and weaknesses of IDF Competitive advantage Strategic threats R&D centers valorization Social / spatial dualization Activity potential around infrastructures Weak transport service on some job areas Worldwide clusters Space opportunities High expectations Ill adapted education for enterprise National transport infrastructures Com- munautarism Drain of middle class Intermunicipal solidarities 40% High unemployment rate Telecom infrastructures Soils pollution green spaces scarcity School failures Medium expectations Young population Economic network Growing precariousness Low urban melting Major communication axis Unbalanced Employment structure The critical weaknesses The plus product Cultural heritage Damaged urban network Cultural equipment quality 20% 100% 50% 0% Low satisfaction Strong satisfaction Source : European Union, objective 2 program, report on Ile-de-France, 2004

  38. Agenda 1 Ile-de-France in the French Context 2 Vision 3 Organization and Process 4 Resources

  39. Vision • Change in IDF is driven by a moderate economic growth in a fierce global competition context Driving Forces Internal External IDF Moderate economic growth (2,8% year growth between 1999 and 2004), high unemployment rate (10% of active population) Migratory deficit (-64 500 people between 1999 and 2004) Low accessibility by collective transit means (Image note on collective means : 6,1/10 in 20041) Need of social and spatial cohesion Intermediate liveability rating (Citizen’s demand for better life conditions) Fierce competition between leading European areas (Ex : Olympic games 2012, biotechnologies) Globalization : companies headquarters’ and researchers’ mobility State land settlement policy pleading for an equilibrium with other regions New technologies (telecommunication, biotechnology, nanotechnology) 1) IDF Transport Syndicate, 2005

  40. Vision • The region’s ambition is to become a sustainable metropolis with three objectives : quality of life and sound environment, economic development, spatial and social solidarities IDF wants to become a leading sustainable metropolis by 2020 Vision Sustainable metropolisation A leading metropolis in Europe Objectives Quality of life and sound environment Territorial and social solidarities Economic development Decentralized governance Innovative Industrial and scientific network Soft circulations transport system Polycentric organization Means

  41. Agenda 1 Ile-de-France in the French Context 2 Vision 3 Organization and Process 4 Resources

  42. State Government + agencies Region IDF Regional Council Regional prefecture County 7 General Councils County prefectures Paris General Council Intermunicipality structures (94) City Sub prefectures Paris Municipal council 1 280 Municipal council 20 borough council Organization Structures and Fundamental Principles • Ile-de-France’s institutions are made of three territorial collectivities levels, in interaction with the State Map of IDF A three level democratic and administrative system Territorial Level TerritorialCommunities Central DevelopedAdministration Val-d’Oise 3. 2. 1. Yvelines 4. Seine-et-Marne Essonne Counties Area (km²) Pop. (1000) Paris (1) 105 2 147 Hauts-de-Seine (2) 175 1 471 Seine-Saint-Denis (3) 235 1 396 Yvelines 2 270 1 370 Val-de-Marne (4) 244 1 239 Seine-et-Marne 5 916 1 232 Essonne 1 804 1 153 Val-d’Oise 1 248 1 122 Ile-de-France 12 001 11 130

  43. Organization Structures and Fundamental Principles • … with a decentralized set of competencies in interaction state A decentralized set of competencies Authority over great infrastructures (railways, motorways, airports) Elaboration of director scheme with communities and State-Region Plan Contract State control : Competency to modify Territorial Coherence Scheme, elaboration and approbation of Territorial Settlement Guidelines Initiative on Town Great projects and Public services scheme Budget aid for housing, and environment State Financing and definition of regional scheme, Regional rail transport Leading role on elaboration with state of director scheme of IDF (SDRIF) and elaboration and approval of State-Region Contract plan Housing priority definition and funding Environment protection, inventory of heritage buildings, regional plan for air quality, regional natural Region Transport : County transport plan, interurban transport Elaboration with State of territorial guidelines (advice), director scheme of IDF (SDRIF), State-Region Contract plan (+ approval) Housing priority definition and funding and County household waste plan Country Organization and financing of transport in in urban perimeter With State, elaboration of territorial guidelines, and of Territorial Coherence Scheme and Local Urbanism Plan and State-Region Contract plan (+ approval) Elaboration and approval of intercities charter Housing priority definition (Local Housing Program, Great Town Projects, social housing organisms Sewerage, drinkable water distribution, waste processing City

  44. Organization Acts and Plans • Regional development is formalized in five main urbanism documents and sectorial policies documents Urbanism and sectorial plan hierarchy in IDF Content Scheme at a national level conciliate important national priorities and local needs in a prospect of 20 years State General urbanism rules Collective Services Scheme Services scheme Strategic planning document of territories long-term development (1994, 4th since 1960) SDRIF Region IDF Director Scheme (SDRIF) Implementation document of SDRIF : main frame of investment policies of the state in partnership with the regions and the sub-regional collectivities Urban Mobility Plan (PDUIF) State-Region Plan Contract CPER County Territorial Coherence Scheme (SCOT) Definition of the evolution of urban areas and their articulation between different planning steps. Ensuring coherencies between of the strategic sectorial orientations SCOT Local Mobility Plan (PLD) Local housing program (PLH) City Definition of the settlement project and the communal and intercity sustainable development, sets the general rules and constraints of land use Local Urban Plan (PLU) PLU Compatibility direction Urbanism documents Sectorial policies documents

  45. Organization Structures and Fundamental Principles • …. illustrated by the Ile-de-France transport syndicate’s evolution The IDF Transport Syndicate(STIF) organization The STIF will hereby become the organizing authorityin the region • Responsibility for organizing public transport in IDF • Local publicly-owned establishment which puts together : • The IDF Region, • The city of Paris, • The 7 counties of the region, • A representative of the publicly-owned establishments of intercity co-operation (EPCI) • A representative of the regional Commerce and Industry Chamber of Paris Ile-de-France (CRCI) Since July 2005, complete withdrawal of the State from the Board of Directors of STIF : the syndicate is chaired by the president of the regional council instead of the region prefect The State will compensate the local collectivities for the cost of this responsibility transfer Increased competencies Competence on : school transports organization, transports upon request, development and revision of the urban mobility plan Possibility to carry out investments projects, to fix the rates of the transport payment requested to the companies, within the price limit determined by law Ability to increase delegation of competencies to the local communities or gathering of local communities

  46. Organization Structures and Fundamental Principles • The decentralization in France means a new co production method of land settlement policy, which have provided results an increasing complexity Impacts of decentralization on land settlement policy … … Which is observed in urbanism documents impact Document Strengths Drawbacks Strengths SDRIF • High level of ambition, • integrated approach • transversals of the sets of themes • Sustainable development is not mentioned, • excessively focused on sectors of activity, • quantitative objectives too rigid and ill adapted, • insufficient consensus between public and private actors, • unequal articulation between general plan and sectors, or local scheme A new co-production method for land settlement vs. imposed guidelines by the State The State has a new positioning in line with a contractualization principle To find relevant discussion place level Drawbacks State-Region Contract Plan • Higher achievement than the French average by the endof 2004 (57%) in a constrained budgetary environment • Relative confusion of the cross financings State-Region Potential dilution of the responsibilities : difficulty for the citizens to know who is in charge of land settlement issues (transport, urban policy, housing) Complex application of the subsidiarity principle : situation of extreme complexity and unreadable for the citizen in spite of the introduction of the “Head community” notion Relative confusion of the cross financings State-Region SCOT IDF • Give coherence to the sectorial policies • Weak margin of operation in terms of organization and space management PDUIF • Variation in local projects (local mobility plan) • Variation of the plan proposals is currently ongoing

  47. Agenda 1 Ile-de-France in the French Context 2 Vision 3 Organization and Process 4 Resources

  48. Resources Main Issues’ Diagnosis • The Ile-de-France region experiences congestion problems mainly in housing and social disparities fields IDF main issues’ diagnosis Medium growth of collective transport traffic Stagnation of commuting between center and agglomeration Increase in moves from suburb to suburb Time consuming transport (“time budget” : 1h30 / day / h.) Impact1) Critical Economic network Tertiary activity is the major part of IDF economy Industries are the most dynamic activities (drugs, IT, services to companies) Transport system Decentralization Strong influence of Paris City Environment Governance Intermediate Housing Widening of pollution definition Domestic wastes reach a high level (480 kg / h.) Increased awareness of pollution impacts Social disparities high increase of ancient flat prices Insufficient new housing construction Densification of close suburb, and far suburbs Demography Basic Stable density (940 h/km²) Demographic dynamism in far suburb Behavior modifications (domestic wastes production, use of motor vehicles use, increased mobility) 2/3 of strategic jobs are in Paris and Hauts-de-Seine Gentrification of south west : fiscal wealth is concentrated between a few numbers of municipalities of center and west Good Medium Weak Quality level in IDF 1) on economic development and quality of life

  49. Resources Policies • A policy mix is necessary to deal with interconnected issues A strong interdependance of main issues Policy dealing with : Economic development Transport Quality of life Territory attractiveness High density Congestion Thoughtless development Environment Housing Urban policy

  50. Resources Policies • The transport policy promote a car reduction in the agglomeration, resulting in a move of traffic congestion from center to suburbs 1 2 3 Public Answer Result Future Plan Transport Suburb to suburb links and car decrease Increased traffic in suburbs Objectives • Infrastructures improvement and development of suburb to suburb collective transport means to comfort centralities in suburbs : • Ring tramway in the close suburb • Railroad line between main poles in far suburb (« Rail tangentials ») • Great intermodal poles with 3 news rail station • Interregional rail lines • Promotion of soft circulations to contribute to qualitative improvement by a decrease of personal cars use in agglomeration : • Regional objectives : car traffic decrease by 3%, increase of collective transport use by 2% (5% for the dense area), doubling of bicycle moves, 3% increase of freight transport by rail or waterway • Paris city : created bus corridors, and regulation with pedestrian area, areas with limited car speed to 30km/h, green networks (bicycle itinerary) Stability of transport spent time through growth of IDF average transport speed and global increase of inhabitant “life basin” by 1,72% per year due to a higher performance of transport networks Stability of individual mobility Slight reduction of car moves toward agglomeration center Increased place of car in far suburb due to Insufficient suburbs to suburbs infrastructures Focus on service quality for poles generating great traffic (exhibition centers, airports, strong economic activity areas) Continuity of networks at the regional scale (achievement of rail « tangentials » and of great by-pass road axis Improvement of collective transport quality of service (information, cleanness, odors, conviviality) Source : State-Region Contract Plan 2000-2006 Source : STIF