PRESENTERS- ASHOK RATHORE- N11 JITENDER KUMAR- N73 KHANGLIN KAMSON- N74 RAJU - N43 VIKRANT SINHA - N78 VINAY BIR – N75 UNDER THE GUIDANCE AND SUPERVISION OF PROF . V.K.BHALLA. INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MOVEMENT. ICM- an introduction ICM- Factors and Drivers
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ASHOK RATHORE- N11
JITENDER KUMAR- N73
KHANGLIN KAMSON- N74
RAJU - N43
VIKRANT SINHA - N78
VINAY BIR – N75
UNDER THE GUIDANCE AND SUPERVISION OF PROF. V.K.BHALLA
INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MOVEMENT
ICM- Factors and Drivers
ICM- Regulatory framework-India Perspective.
Impact of Capital Movement
FDI & FII in India- Some facts and figures.
What Future holds??
WHAT TO EXPECT:(CONTENTS)
International Capital Movement
- What Does it Mean :
Capital Movement is not a new phenomenon. Some Communication and trade existed between distant civilizations too. Since the travels of Marco Polo seven centuries ago, global economic integration—through trade, factor movements, and communication of economically useful knowledge and technology—has been on a generally rising trend.
International capital movement ( or Flows) refers to the outflow and inflow of capital from one country to another country.
They do not relate to movement of goods or payment for exports and imports between countries.
They Refer to the borrowing and lending between countries
You must have come across news items like:
All these would be examples of Capital Movement.
Theory of Capital Movement: This theory assumes existence of a perfectly competitive market and considers capital movement as factor movement to take advantage of the differential profit.
Market Imperfection Theory: This theory assumes explanation in the monopolistic advantage theory expounded by Stephen in 1960. It says Foreign Direct Investment occurred in Countries with oligopolistic industry rather than those which had near perfect competition.
Internalization Theory: An extension of Market Imperfection Theory, this theory states that foreign investment results from the decision of a firm to internalise the firm specific advantage like a superior knowledge of a product.
Appropriability Theory: It is similar to the Internalization Theory and states a firm should be able to appropriate the benefits resulting from a technology generated after research and development.
1. Labour Costs.
2. Market Factors, viz. Market size, market growth, stage of development and local competition.
3. Trade Barriers
4. Government Policy.
The flow of direct capital movement means that the concern of investing country exercise holding a specified position over the assets of other country. setting up a corporation in a investing country for specific purpose for assembling the parent product, its distribution , sale and exports or creation of fixed assets by investing in infrastructures like power, railways and highways etc
2. Indirect Movement/portfolio investment:
The movement of indirect capital means investment in other country by purchasing securities, shares or debenture.
Private and Government Capital :
Private capital movement
means lending to or borrowing from abroad by private individuals and institutions.
profit motive is the principal factor behind such investment
On the other hand,
Government capital movements
imply lending and borrowing between governments. Such capital movements are under the direct control of government.
in fact government are important international lenders
they make stability loan, loan to finance exports and imports and to finance particular projects
Home and foreign capital:
is concerned with investments made abroad by residents of the country. Thus home capital refers to the out flow of capital,
On the other hand,
implies investments made by foreigners in the country. Foreign capital is concerned with the inflow of capital.
It refers to public foreign capital on hard or soft terms, in cash or in kind and inter- government grants.
foreign aid is tied or untied .aid may be tied by project and by commodities
untied loan is a general purpose aid and is known as non-project loan
Short- term and Long- term Capital:
Short- term capital movements are for a period of less than one year maturity while long- term capital movements are of more than one- year maturity.
1. Interest Rates:
The most important factor which effect international capital movement is the difference among current interest rates in various countries.
Rate of interest shows rate of return over capital
Capital flows from that country in which the interest rates are low to those where interest rates are high because capital yields high return there.
FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MOVEMENTS Contd…
Speculation related to expecting variations in foreign exchange rates or interest rates affect short capital movements.
When speculators feel that the domestic interest rates will increase in future, they will invest in short- term foreign securities to earn profit. This will lead out flow of capital.
On the other hand if possibility of fall of in domestic interest rates in future, the foreign speculator investing securities at a low price at present. This will lead to inflow of capital in the country.
FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MOVEMENTS Contd…
3.Expectation of profits:
A foreign investor always has the profit motives in his mind at the time of making capital investment in the other country. Where the possibility of earning profit is more, capital flows into that country.
4. Bank Rate:
A stable bank rate of the central bank of the country also influences capital movements because market interest rates depend on it.
If bank rate is low, there will be out flow of capital and vice versa
FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MOVEMENTS Contd…
Capital movements depends on production costs in other countries. In countries where labor, raw materials, etc are cheap and easily available, more private foreign capital flows there.
The main reasons of huge capital investment in Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia and other developing countries by MNCs is low production cost there.
FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MOVEMENTS Contd…
6. Economic Condition:
The economic condition of a country, especially size of the market, availability of infrastructure facilities like the means of transportation and communication, power and other resources, efficient labor, etc encourage the inflow of capital there.
Political stability, security of life and property, friendly relation with other countries, etc. encourage the inflow of capital in the country.
8. Taxation Policy:
The taxation policy of a country also affects the inflow or outflow of capital. To encourage the inflow of capital, Soft taxation policy should be followed, give tax relief to new industries and foreign collaborations , etc.
Foreign capital policy:
the government policy relating to foreign capital affects capital movements provision of different facilities relating to transferring profits dividend, interest etc to foreign investors will attract foreign capital
Fiscal and Monetary policy
of a country also affect capital inflow and outflow
Marginal Efficiency of Capital:
MEC is directly related with the inflow of capital. Investors usually compare MEC in different countries and like to invest in a country where MEC is high comparatively.
The main Agents are:
Non Bank Financial Institutions
Central Banks and other government agencies.
Commercial Banks: the main agents in the capital movement , these act as conduits for incoming and outgoing capital flow.
Corporations: they do so via cross border mergers and acquisitions and participation in cross border equity stake.
Non Bank Financial Institutions: These assist in cross border deals and Capital movement.
Central Governments and Other Government and International Agencies: Governments form policies that govern inflow and outflow based on their socio economic judgments.
International Agencies like the World Bank, IMF and Asian Development Bank allocate money into predetermined projects. The money is pooled from different member states.
HOW THESE AGENT WORKContd….
Government Policy across nations form the single most important factor in shaping Capital movement flow in and out of the country.
Each country tries to regulate Capital flow into and out of the country and has evolved policies for same.
The decision is based on the countries socio economic and political considerations.
Put in place systems/policies/guidelines to stop money laundering and black money flow.
Section I: Foreign Direct Investment:
Who are eligible- investments can be made by non-residents in the shares / convertible debentures / preference shares of an Indian company.
Two routes for capital inflow-
a) Automatic route- foreign investor does not require any approval for investment from the RBI.
b) Government route- prior approval of the Government of India, Ministry of Finance, Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) is required.
Prohibition on Investment in India:
Foreign Investment in any form is prohibited in the following sectors-
(a) Retail Trading (except single brand product retailing)
(b) Atomic Energy
(c) Lottery Business including Government / private lottery , online lotteries, etc.
(d) Gambling and Betting including casinos, etc
(e) Business of chit fund
(f) Nidhi company
(g) Trading in Transferable Development Rights(TDRs)
(h) Activities / sectors not opened to private sector investment
(i) Agriculture (excluding Floriculture, Horticulture, Development of seeds, Animal Husbandry, Pisciculture and cultivation of vegetables, mushrooms, etc. under controlled conditions and services related to
agro and allied sectors) and Plantations (other than Tea Plantations)
(j) Manufacturing of Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes, of tobacco or of tobacco substitutes.
Type of instruments available for investment in India:
Indian Companies can issue equity shares, fully and mandatorily convertible debentures and fully and mandatorily convertible preference shares subject to valuation norms prescribed by the RBI.
Issue of other types of preference shares such as non convertible, optionally convertible or partially convertible have to be in accordance with guidelines applicable for External Commercial Borrowing (ECB)
For debentures, only those fully and mandatorily convertible into equity within a specified time is reckoned as part of equity under FDI policy.
Reporting: An Indian company receiving investment from outside India for issuing shares / convertible debentures / preference shares under the FDI Scheme, should report the details of the amount of consideration to the Regional Office concerned of the Reserve Bank through it’s AD Category I bank, not later than 30 days from the date of receipt in the Advance
Issue of shares by Indian companies under ADR / GDR :
Depository Receipts (DRs) are negotiable securities issued outside India by a Depository bank, on behalf of an Indian company, which represent the local Rupee denominated equity shares of the company held as deposit by a Custodian bank in India.
DRs listed and traded in the US markets are known as American Depository Receipts (ADRs) and those listed and traded elsewhere are known as Global Depository Receipts (GDRs).
A company can issue ADRs / GDRs if it is eligible to issue shares to persons resident outside India under the FDI Scheme.
Section II- Foreign Portfolio Investment:
Foreign institutional investors (FII) registered with SEBI and NRIs are eligible to purchase shares and convertible debentures issued by the Indian companies under the Portfolio Investment Scheme (PIS).
Investment by Non Resident Indians(NRIs)
NRIs are allowed to invest in shares of listed Indian companies in recognised Stock Exchanges under the PIS. NRIs can invest through designated ADs, on repatriation and non-repatriation basis under PIS route up to 5 per cent of the paid- up capital / paid-up value of each series of debentures of listed Indian companies.
The aggregate paid-up value of shares / convertible debentures purchased by all NRIs cannot exceed 10 per cent of the paid-up capital of the company / paid-up value of each series of debentures of the company.
The NRI investor has to take delivery of the shares purchased and give delivery of shares sold. Short Selling is not permitted.
Section-III : Foreign Venture Capital Investments :
Foreign Venture Capital Investor (FVCI) should be registered with SEBI should have approval from the RBI under Foreign Exchange Management Act.
FVCI can invest in Indian Venture Capital Undertaking (IVCU) or Indian Venture Capital Fund (IVCF) or in a Scheme floated by such IVCFs subject to the condition that the VCF should also be registered with SEBI.
These investments by SEBI registered FVCI , would be subject to the SEBI regulation and sector specific caps of FDI.
Investment by Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)
A Multilateral Development Bank (MDB) which is specifically permitted by the Government of India to float rupee bonds in India can purchase Government dated securities.
External Commercial Borrowings (ECB) refer to commercial loans in the form of bank loans, buyers’ credit, suppliers’ credit, securitized instruments (e.g. floating rate notes and fixed rate bonds, non-convertible, optionally convertible or partially convertible preference shares) availed of from non-resident lenders with a minimum average maturity of 3 years.
Amount and Maturity
Automatic Route: (without limit under approval route)
a) The maximum amount of ECB which can be raised by a corporate other than those in the hotel, hospital and software sectors is USD 500 million or its equivalent during a financial year.
b) Corporates in the services sector viz. hotels, hospitals and software sector are allowed to avail of ECB up to USD 100 million or its equivalent in a financial year for meeting foreign currency and/ or Rupee capital expenditure for permissible end-uses. The proceeds of the ECBs should not be used for acquisition of land.
vi) End-uses not permitted
(a) For on-lending or investment in capital market or acquiring a company (or a part thereof) in India by a corporate [investment in Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs), Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMFs), etc., are also considered as investment in capital markets).
(b) for real estate sector,
(c) for working capital, general corporate purpose and repayment of existing Rupee loans.
Direct Investment Outside India :
Reserve Bank would, inter alia, take into account the following factors while considering such applications:
a) Prima facie viability of the JV / WOS outside India;
b) Contribution to external trade and other benefits which will accrue to India through such investment;
c) Financial position and business track record of the Indian party and the foreign entity; and
d) Expertise and experience of the Indian party in the same or related line of activity of the JV / WOS outside India.
Largest democracy – political stability & consensus on reforms
Fourth largest Economy (PPP) -A safe place to do business
Liberal & transparent investment policies
Largest reservoir of skilled manpower
- High growth rate economy
Source - www.dipp.gov.in ; Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion Ministry of Commerce & Industry Government of India
More Avenues Opened for FIIs
More sectors opened ; Equity caps raised in many other sectors Procedures simplified
Up to 100% under Automatic Route in all sectors except
a small negative list
Up to 74/51/50% in 112 sectors under the
Automatic Route 100% in some sectors
FDI up to 51% allowed under the Automatic route in 35 Priority sectors
Allowed selectively up to 40%
FDI Policy Liberalization
the FII limit for investment in corporate bonds, issued by companies in the infrastructure sector, has been raised,
A sharp rise from $5 billion to $25 billion will not only spur investments in the sector, but will also have a cascading impact on other sectors.
FIIs would also be allowed to invests in unlisted bonds with a minimum locking period of 3 yrs
Indian funds will be permitted to sell equity schemes to foreigners. Currently, only FIIs, NRIs and sub-accounts registered with Sebi can invest in mutual funds
DIPP has invited views/ comments on
FDI in Multi-band Retail
FDI in Defence Sector
FDI in Limited Liability Partnership Firms
Source: DIPP, Figures in $bn
Figures in $bn
Bharti’s Acquisition of Zain Telecom
USD 10.7 billion
Tata Steel buys Corus Plc
USD 12.1 billion
Hindalco acquired Novelis Inc.
USD 6 billion
Essar Steel acquired Algoma Steel
USD 1.58 billion
Suzlon Energy Ltd. acquires REpower
USD 1.6 billion
United Spirits Ltd. acquired Whyte & Mackay
USD 1.1 billion
FII means an ENTITY/FUND established or incorporated OUTSIDE INDIA which proposes to make investment in SECURTIES. FII’s are those investors that INDIRECTLY invest into the companies through the STOCK MARKET
The Reserve Bank of India monitors the ceilings on FII investments in Indian companies on a daily basis. They even publish data regarding the amount of FII inflow & Outflow.
A. Caution List
When trigger limit which is 2% below the applicable limit, RBI issues notice to all concerned.
B. Ban List
Once the limit of FII reaches the overall limit,
Reserve Bank puts the company under the ban list
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
OUTFLOW OF MONEY
SHORT TERM OPPORTUNITES
EASY ROUTE WITHOUT IDENTITY
INDIAN MARKET MORE SENSITIVE
Impacts of International Capital movement on an economy
Capital movement in the short-term affect the monetary supply in an economy
Primary expansion or contraction in money supply is directly due to surplus or deficit in the current account of balance of payments. When exports exceed imports of country, the quantity of money increases with the exporters. On the contrary, when imports exceed exports, the quantity of money decreases with the importer because they are required to pay to the exporters more than what they receive. As a result, net supply of money declines.
Balancing Balance of Payment: Long-term capital movements are needed for balancing deficit or surplus in the balance of payment of a country. with the inflow of capital, the BOP deficit of the borrowing country improves, while that of the lending country may become adverse. But the lender country gains when its starts receiving interest, dividend, royalty, etc. which it can utilize to fill its current account deficit in balance of payment.
______________________________________Balance of Payment Account_________________________________________
Credits (+) /(Receipts) Debits (-)/ (Payments)
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Current Account
(a) Goods (a)Goods
(b) Services (b)Services
(c) Transfers Payments (c)Transfers Payments
(a) Borrowing from Foreign Countries (a) Lending tom foreign countries
(b) Direct Investments by Foreign Countries (b) Direct Investment in Foreign Countries
Official Settlement Account
(a) Increase in Foreign Official Holdings (a) Increase in Official Reserve of
Gold and foreign Currencies
Errors and Omissions
2. Improving Terms of Trade: When with the inflow of capital, output increases, its export may increase and imports may decline in the long run. As a result term of trade may improve in relation to the capital lending country.
5. Changing factor proportions: the long-term capital movements also bring about changes in factor proportions of the country to which they flow. The capital-labour ration changes with the import of more capital.
6. Maximizing Welfare: There is more and better utilization of the country’s resources. Modern government which borrows long-term capital from private and international financial institutions see to it that the borrowed capital is utilized in proper works, project and industries. Thus capital moves in those directions where it maximizes welfare.
8. Narrowing Technological Gap: When capital moves from one country to another, technologies from the lending country are transferred along with plants, equipment, etc. to the borrowing country. This tends to upgrade technologies in the latter country and the technological gap between the two countries is narrowed down.
9. Other Benefits:
Higher real wages for domestic labour
Increase in consumer welfare
Increase in government fiscal revenue
One of the important limitations to utilize the foreign capital is the absorptive capacity of the recipient country, i.e. the capacity to utilize the foreign capital effectively. Some of the important factors that affect the absorptive capacity are:
Capital tends to flow to high profit areas rather than to priority sectors
Technologies brought in may not be appropriate
Unfavorable effect on the Balance of payment
Interferes in the national politics
5. Unfair & unethical trade practices
6. May lead to destruction & weakening of small & traditional enterprises
7. May result in creation of monopolies & oligopolistic structure
Can displace domestic producer
Private capital flows are not reliable source of financing for development
10. Costs associated with encouraging foreign Investment can have adverse effects on economy
International portfolio diversification can allow residents of all countries to reduce variability/risk of their wealth.- international capital market makes this diversification possible.
International portfolio diversification can be carried out through exchange of :
>Debt Instruments- Bonds and Bank Deposits
>Equity Instruments- A share of stock.
Sovereign wealth fund (SWF) is a fund owned by a state composed of financial assets such as stocks, bonds, property or other financial instruments.
Sovereign wealth funds are, broadly defined, entities that can manage the national savings for the purposes of investment.These are assets of the sovereign nations which are typically (but not necessarily) held in domestic and different reserve currencies such as the dollar, euro and yen.The names attributed to the management entities may include central banks, official investment companies, state pension funds, sovereign oil funds and so on.
There have been attempts to distinguish funds held by sovereign entities from foreign exchange reserves held by central banks. The former can be characterized as maximizing long term return, latter serving short term currency stabilization and liquidity management.
Nature and PurposeSWFs are typically created when governments have budgetary surpluses and have little or no international debt. This excess liquidity is not always possible or desirable to hold as money or to channel it into consumption immediately. This is especially the case when a nation depends on raw material exports like oil, copper or diamonds.
Other reasons for creating SWFs may be economical, or strategic, such as war chests for uncertain times. For example, the Kuwait Investment Authority during the Gulf War managed excess reserves above the level needed for currency reserves (although many central banks do that now). The Government of Singapore Investment Corporation is partially the expression of a desire to create an international finance center. The Korean Investment Corporation has since been similarly managed.
First, as this asset pool continues to grow in size and importance, so does its potential impact on various asset markets.
Second, and relatedly, some critics worry that foreign investment by sovereign wealth funds raises national security concerns because the purpose of the investment might be to secure control of strategically-important industries for political rather than financial gain.
Third, sovereign wealth funds are not nearly as homogeneous as central banks or public pension funds.
Fourth, are central bank reserve managers – at least those among them who have accumulated massive foreign exchange reserves in recent years – starting to act more like sovereign wealth managers? What precisely is the difference between the two, and how can we expect them to develop and relate to one another in the future?