Chapter 9 1911-1976 The Modernization of China
China • World’s oldest continuous civilization • Its isolation allowed it to develop without European influence • History of dynasties • Dynasty: series of rulers from the same family • Ruler was viewed as the son of heaven • Rulers were given their authority from heaven, they must be fair or they will lose their mandate • Emperors who ruled for many years were considered to be good
Development of China’s Culture • Three major religious or ethical traditions • Confucianism • Confucius lived from 551 BCE-489 BCE • Was bothered by disorder, developed ideas to restore peace and harmony • Teachings are found the The Analects
Development of China’s Culture • Taught about the five relationships • Ruler and ruled • Father and son • Husband and Wife • Older brother and younger brother • Friend and Friend • All relationships (except friends) had one person of authority over another • Believed that the superior person should set an example for the other • Teachings stressed loyalty, honesty, and good work
Development of China’s Culture • Taoism • Based on the teachings of Lao-tzu 604 BCE-531 BCE • Taught that individuals should seek harmony with nature • Government should leave people alone to do as little as possible • Buddhism • Came to China from India • Includes ideas from Taoism & Confucianism
Isolation • Remained Isolated until Marco Polo wrote his book The Travels of Marco Polo • Caused Europeans to travel to China for silk and spices
End of Dynastic China • Opium Wars – 2 wars from 1830s-1860s – British Indian merchants were smuggling opium into China’s ports – wars ended with China signing unequal treaties that allowed other countries unrestricted access to China (spheres of influence) • Taiping Rebellion – 1850-64 – civil war to oppose opium war treaties and western imperialism • Boxer Rebellion – Aug. 1900 – “Boxers” in China (secret groups pledged to rid China of foreign powers) killed hundreds of Christian missionaries and foreigners from Europe/US and their spheres of influence – Europe/US sent soldiers to end rebellion • Qing Dynasty ended in 1912 – last Qing emperor lost power and favor with the people – result of these previous 3 events…
1912-1920s • Sun Yat-sen, President of the Nationalist People’s Party (Kuomintang - KMT) • Forged alliances with Soviet Union • Tried to re-unify China into republic so people would have a say in the government (provinces had been ruled by warlords) • Yat-sen died of cancer in 1925
Chiang Kai-shek takes over the leadership of the Nationalist Party (KMT) • Continued the task of reunification of all of China. • Did not like Communists, so he tried to kill them off. • Mao Zedong was one of the few who escaped.
The Long March – a series of marches around China • For a year in 1934 Nationalists chased down the Communists, trying to eliminate them. • Communists had 100,000 people when they started, ended up 6,000 miles later with only 4,000-8,000 people. • Why? • Did not know where they were going.
Japanese Involvement • 1937 Japan invades China from Manchuria to take advantage of fighting within country. • After Pearl Harbor attack, Japanese focus turned to fighting the Americans. • 20 million Chinese die at the hands of Japanese by 1945.
Post WWII China • Nationalists vs. Communists – fighting. • Nationalists have too much debt…solved problems by printing money, which led to hyperinflation • October 1949 • Nationalists & Kai-shek flee to Taiwan. • Mao Zedong proclaims the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
Communism • Communist leader was Mao Zedong • Communism appealed to the poor because it offered land reform • Welcomed the idea that foreign imperialism would end • Communist leaders promised to modernize China by encouraging industry
1958 Great Leap Forward • aka • “A Serious Leap Backward” • Purpose: Increase China’s production capacity because the agricultural output was not living up to its potential. • Communes and Industries set up for people to farm and produce steel.
People told to reproduce to be able to run family farms… beginning of overpopulation problems! • The rest of the story… • Ended up being the greatest man-made famine in all of history – communes were not self-sufficient! • Officially “bad weather” was blamed.
Cultural Revolution 1966-1976 • Mao’s attempt to erase the influence of Confucius or the “old order” • Ideology • Thought • Habits • Social Order/Customs
Everyone should live a peasant’s life…academics taken away to work farms, farmers given open entrance to universities (didn’t want academics to revolt!) • Dissenters killed. • Books, music, libraries, museums, cultural centers destroyed. • The rest of the story…it was a miserable failure!
Mao dies 1976 • Deng Xiaoping became president of PRC • He didn’t want death & destruction anymore!
1976 Reforms: Four Modernizations • Modernization and mechanization of agriculture. • Immediate upgrade of defense forces. • Modernization and expansion of industry. • Development of science, technology, and medicine.