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Impact of Modernization. Industrialization and Economy. I. Three Great Revolutions. A. Political Revolution destroyed the great monarchies and feudalism rise of democratic societies power resides in the people. Three Great Revolutions, cont’d. B. Scientific Revolution

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Impact of Modernization


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impact of modernization

Impact of Modernization

Industrialization and Economy

i three great revolutions
I. Three Great Revolutions
  • A. Political Revolution
    • destroyed the great monarchies and feudalism
    • rise of democratic societies
    • power resides in the people
three great revolutions cont d
Three Great Revolutions, cont’d
  • B. Scientific Revolution
    • rise of scientific method, the "knowing self“
    • technological innovations ---> industrial revolution
    • declining significance of a religious world view
three great revolutions cont d4
Three Great Revolutions, cont’d
  • C. Industrial Revolution
    • specialized, machine-based production
    • huge increase in productivity
    • birth of the middle class
ii industrialization and economy
II. Industrialization and Economy
  • A. Industrialization: "the replacement of living energy sources with non-living energy sources"

B. Social Differentiation: "The process by which different social categories emerge and by which people come to fill those categories”

  • C. Specialization (~~~ "the transformation from single, multiple-purpose roles to multiple, single-purpose roles)
    • 1. type of social differentiation
iii consequences of changes
III. Consequences of changes?
  • A. Three general predictions:
    • 1. Optimistic (Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations [1776])
      • dramatically increases productivity
      • creates new jobs
      • mechanism for social organization
        • economic interdependence: exchange relationships
consequences cont d
Consequences (cont’d)
  • B. Cautiously Optimistic (Emile Durkheim, The Division of Labor in Society, 1893)
    • 1. "Is specialization really a viable form of social organization?“
    • 2. solidarity~~~ "commonality of purpose and social identity"
consequences durkheim
Consequences (Durkheim)
  • 3. pre-industrial societies = “mechanical solidarity“
    • a. simple division of labor (gender and age)
    • b. how will we achieve solidarity in an age of specialization?
consequences durkheim9
Consequences (Durkheim)
  • 4. Industrial societies COULD produce solidarity

a. organic solidarity: interdependence (like Smith)

b. BUT: specialization could also fragment society

      • i. produce anomie (a-nomos) ~~~ "a condition of societal normlessness"
consequences cont d10
Consequences (cont’d)
  • C. Pessimistic: Karl Marx (Capital, 1867, 1885, 1894)
    • 1. concerned about the types of work in industrialization
    • 2. Alienation
consequences marx
Consequences (Marx)
  • Alienation = condition of separation/ estrangement from:
    • a. production process itself
    • b. finished products of our labor
    • c. our fellow workers
    • d. ourselves
iv industrialization and stratification
IV. Industrialization and Stratification
  • (another type of differentiation)
  • A. Stratification: “the vertical ranking of the members of a society, based upon their access to and control over scarce resources"
stratification cont d
Stratification (cont’d)
  • B. Max Weber: 3 dimensions of stratification
    • 1. wealth
      • class stratification
    • 2. honor (prestige)
      • status stratification
    • 3. power
      • "party" (politics)
v household economy
V. Household Economy
  • A. Produced subsistence
  • B. work was performed in and for the household
  • C. money was used as a unit of account
  • D. barter/trade for items they did not produce
  • E. orientation away from the market
vi capitalism
VI. Capitalism
  • Both a set of social practices AND a way of thinking about and organizing economic activities
  • A. 3 distinct features
    • 1. The Market -- impersonal buying and selling of commodities
    • 2. Distinct Economic Institutions: orgs devoted to the mfg. and dist. of specific products
      • a. "double-dependence"
    • 3. Profit Orientation (the "ism" of capitalism)
capitalism cont d
Capitalism (cont’d)
  • B. Marx: commodity production circuit: M-C-M'
    • 1. M' = surplus value (profit)
    • 2. come to see all aspects of org. according to effects upon profit
    • 3. Marx: where does added value come from?
    • 4. AND where does it go?
    • 5. Conflict
vii impact of specialization on stratification
VII. Impact of Specialization on Stratification
  • A. Marx: Two-Class Society (Bourgeoisie and Proletariat)
    • 1. Few wealthy, many poor
    • 2. Class Consciousness
      • a. proletariat: a class for themselves
    • 3. Revolution
    • 4. Capitalism ~~~ last stage on the way to a just society (Communism)
impact of specialization on stratification cont d
Impact of Specialization on Stratification (cont’d)
  • B. "Smith": Generally Higher Standard of Living for Most
    • 1. a few wealthy
    • 2. the majority ~~~ "middle class”
    • 3. a few poor