19-1 Dawn of the Industrial Age • The Agricultural Revolution Paves the way
Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England Industrialization- Why: Large population and extensive natural resources. • Enclosures increase output but causes migration. • Population multiplies. Why?
New Technology Becomes Key • An energy revolutions • In 1712, British inventor Thomas Newcomen developed the _____. • Coal was also a vital source of fuel production. Coal was used to _____ iron for the separation of iron from its ore.
19-2 Industrialization • Problems with industrialization: Urbanization- Why? 1. 2. 3.
Living Conditions • Rapid growth in cities led to: • What was the effect on the working class? • Methodists- • Sunday school
Working Conditions • The Average work week was.. • Dangerous- • Child labor-
Class Tensions Grow • Most of the wealth belonged to the middle class. • Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution • Political power of working class eventually increased and social problems declined • Labor unions • New technology
Industrialization Spreads 19-3 • The United States has similar resources as Britain to mechanize its industries. • The War of 1812- • Technological boom in the U.S. came from:
19-4 Reforming the Industrial World The Philosophers of Industrialization laissez faire- • criticized government regulation of businesses. • Adam Smith- “The Wealth of Nations”
The Economists of Capitalism • Capitalism- • Thomas Malthus, “An Essay on the Principle of Population” • Opposed government efforts to help poor workers. Creating minimum wages laws and better working conditions would undermine the production of wealth in society.
The Rise of Socialism • Jeremy Bentham • Utilitarianism- • Promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. • It was wrong that workers lived deprived lives and were poor. • Believed in equal division of profits
Utopian Ideas • Robert Owen- • Socialism- • Argument:
Marxism: Radical Socialism • Karl Marx and Frederich Engels “The Communist Manifesto” • Communism-
Labor Unions and Reform Laws • Unions- • What does a union do? • Strike-
Reform Laws • Factory Act 1833- • Mines Act 1842- • Ten Hours Act 1847- • The Reform Movement Spreads • The Abolition of Slavery • When did slavery end in: U.S., Puerto Rico, Cuba, Brasil?